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ULS textbook 



HIS TEXTBOOK 



1 June 1980 



NLS Textbook 



PREFACE 

this document is based on a collection of chapters prepared by 
the Augmentation Resources Center of Tyishare, Inc. this 
edition is intended to describe NLS as it exists on the 
Information Sciences Institute (ISI) systems B, C, D # E, and F-. 
There »ay be portions of the system or the examples that vork a 
little differently than described in this document, if so 
please report the discrepancy to LINDA§ISIF. 

The original authors, Nina Zolotow, Caroline Rcse # and Dirk Van 
Nouhuys* deserve a great deal of credit for creating this 
material and its organization, 

— Jon Postel 

— Lynne Sims 

— Linda Sato 
1 June 1980 



Page i-2 



SLS Textbook 



CONTESTS 

1. INTRODUCTION TO THE SLS TEXTBOOK 

2. BEGINNING USE OF NLS 

3. GETTING INFORMATION &HV SERVICES 

4. CREATING AND HEADING AN ORGANIZED FILE 

5. EDITING: AN INTERMEDIATE LESSON 

6. VIEWING: AN INTEPNEDIATE LESSON 

7. NLS VOCABULARY 



Page i-3 



HLS Textbook 



INTRODUCTION TO THE ULS TEXTBOOK 



fILS textbook 



INTRODUCTION TO THE HLS TEXTBOOK 



This textbook introduces the KLS system* It describes what you 
can do with NLS and how to do it. Me also hope that it will 
help you adapt to a new style of working. By using NLS's 
special tools and techniques rather than typewriters* pencils* 
and paper* ycu will be better able to organize your thoughts as 
well as your information. 

Tfte textbook was written tor a very wide range of NLS users. 
Some are highly technical people* with a great deal of computer 
experience, who look forward to learning a new computer system 
with confidence and pleasure. Others are people who have never 
seen a computer or a computer terminal before; they will be 
using #LS for the kind of work that they have always done 
without the aid of a computer. 

Just as the backgrounds cl our users vary greatly* so do their 
requirements for MLS documentation. People who are trained by 
experienced ULS users need a nanual they can use for review or 
reference* while others want to learn KLS on their own by 
reading some kind of user guide froa beginning to end. Still 
other people want a document that will give tfcem a general idea 
of NLS's capabilities; they may not necessarily want to use the 
system or ever sit down at an ULS terminal. 

in planning the ULS textbook* we have tried to accomodate as 
many of these people as possible. The textbook consists of a 
number of lessons* and their organization is flexible enough so 
you can read them froia beginning to end or skip from one 
section to another. 

The language in the textbook is nontechnical and informal* and 
we have tried to cover many subjects simply and thoroughly. 
Our basic approach has been that too much information is better 
than not enough. 

Because learning ULS is similar to learning a foreign language* 
the textbook is organized like a language textbook. The lesson 
entitled "Beginning Use of NLS" introduces you to the system as 
a whole* other lessons give you the information necessary to 
learn a particular aspect of the system. 

The most effective way to use NLS is at an NLS display 
terminal. For this reason* the lessons assume that you do or 
(Will have access to an NLS display. Using 8LS at a display 

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NL5 Textbook 
Introduction to the nt$ Textbook 



terminal is a particularly visual experience — it is often hard 
to put into words yhat the result of a certain command will be 
or how it will feel to work with the system. Therefore/ we 
have included a great many examples that you can follow as 
exercises so that, if you wish, you can see the results that we 
describe. 

The following section describes in detail the organization of a 
typical lesson so that you can understand how the various 
sections relate to each other and can tell which sections will 
be the most helpful for your particular situation. 

THE STRUCTURE OF A LESSON 

Every lesson begins with a very brief description of the topics 
it covers, possibly suggesting the type of work you can do with 
what you will learn. You are also told what you should already 
know before starting the lesson. The remainder of each lesson 
has the structure shown below. 



Introduction 

This section presents the new concepts and background 
information you need to know In order to understand the 
lesson. 



Vocabulary 

Here you will see an alphabetical list and short definitions 
of all terias and commands discussed in the lesson* You aay 
want to read through this list to get an overview of the 
contents of the lesson; however, it is primarily intended to 
be used for reference. You should refer to it when you are 
reading the lesson if you encounter a tera whose meaning you 
have forgotten or have never learned. You nay also find this 
list useful when you later refer to the lesson to look up a 
term or command that you learned from it. 



The body of the lesson 

The body of a lesson aiay consist of any number of sections, 
each under an appropriate heading. These sections contain 
the primary discussion of the subject of the lesson. 



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NLS Textbook 
Introduction to the NLS Textbook 



Exercises 

This section contains exercises to test what you have 
learneo. Solutions are provided later, following the end of 
the lesson. 



Suggested Projects 

Some lessons include this section to suggest ways that you 
can gain experience in using what you have learned. 



Summary 

This section briefly summarizes the lesson, emphasizing 
particularly important concepts. It may reier you to other 
lessons or documents that might be helpful. 

FORMAT OF EXAMPLES 

Most examples are shown in two columns, the first indicating 
'what you type and the second showing what you would then see in 
the command window. The command window is one of the areas of 
the screen on the display terminal; when you give a command, 
the command is displayed in this window along with feedback 
frora NLS, such as prompts telling you what you can do next. 

In either column of the example, when an entry occupies ©ore 
than one line, all lines beyond the first are indented slightly 
to help you see that they are continuation lines. The line 
length shown depends on the dimensions of the column and may 
not be the same as what you actually observe at the terminal. 

Sometimes the coffiaand window shows first one thing and then 
another, before you type again. In this case, both appear in 
the second column of the example, one after the other, filote, 
however, that when you give the command you may hardly notice 
what is shown first, because what follows it may appear 
immediately thereafter. 

The examples show what you see if you are getting standard 
command feedback from $LS. You may ask to receive a different 
type ot feedback, more suited to your needs; if you do this, 
you may see in your command window something slightly different 
from what is sho«n in the examples. 

(The examples often show that you type lowercase letters where 

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NLS Textbook 
Introduction to the NLS Textbook 



you may actually type either lowercase or uppercase or any 
combination of the t«o* Where it matters which case you use* 
this will be noted in the discussion surrounding the example or 
will be clear from the context* For instance, when you type 
some text that you want to save, NLS accepts the text exactly 
as you type it, but when you type a letter of a word in a 
command, case is ignored. 

HOTATIQM FOR SPECIAL CHARACTERS 

The characters you type when you use NLS include not only 
letters of the alphabet and punctuation, but also some 
characters that you cannot see, such as spaces and special 
control characters* Mhere the ELS textbook shows what you 
type, you can usually tell where to type a space, such as 
between words in text. In some cases, however, it may not be 
clear that you type a space* In these cases, and wherever you 
are to type any other special character, the textbook uses the 
notations indicated in the table on the following page* 

The first column of this table shows the notation used and the 
second column tells you what keys or mouse buttons you would 
press to produce the character represented by the notation. 
Key names are given here as they appear on the most recently 
designed MLS keyboard as well as hon they may appear on other 
keyboards, fchere applicable, the third column shows a control 
character that normally will have the same effect as pressing 
the indicated iceys or buttons* note, however, that in some 
cases you may change the equivalent character from the one 
shown here. 



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NLS Textbook 
Introduction to the NLS Textbook 



Notation Keys or Buttons 

<BC> BACK SPACE CHAR, BACK SPACE, 
or left mouse button 

<BUG> OK or right arouse button, after 
pointing «ith mouse 

<B«> BACK SPACE iiCRD or left and Kiddle 
mouse buttons 

<CD> CMD DEL or aiddle mouse button 

<CTRL-x> CTRL and x simultaneously, where 
x aay be any letter 

<ESC> ESC 

<HELP> HELP 

<INS> INSERT or INSRT 

<LF> LF or LINE FEED 

<LIT> CTRL and ¥ simultaneously 

<MULL> CTRL and N simultaneously 

<OK> OK or right mouse button 

<OPT> OPT'N or OPTION 

<RC> RPT CMQ or middle and right mouse 
buttons 

<RET> RETURN 

<SP> Space 

<TAB> TAB 



Equivalent 

<CTRL-A> 
or <CTRL-H> 

<CTRL-D> 



<CTRL-«> 
<CTRL-S> 



<CT8L-Q> 
<CTRL-E> 
<CTRL-J> 
<CTRL-V> 
<CTRL-N> 
<CTRL-D> 
<CTRL-U> 
<CTRL-B> 

<CTRL-«> 
<CTRL-I> 



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NLS Textbook 
Introduction to the NLS Textbook 



NOTATION FOR PROMPTS 

When NLS is yaiting for you to type something it proapts you 
yith a symbol indicating the kind of thing it expects. For 
exanple, M C: M means that MLS expects you to enter a coanand 
word* 

Notation Meaning 

A Address 

B Bug - point to something 

Command iord 

Level adjustment 

Text or Typein 

Vieyspec 



C 
L 
T 
V 
/ 

C 3 



** 



Alternative* for exaiple A/E »eans 
Address or Bug 

Optional* for example CA3 means that Address 
is an optional argument ano that the <Gpf> 
character must be entered before an Address 
can be entered. 

Additional command yords (usually optional) 
are available 

ULS is working on your request. 



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HLS Textbook 



BEGIUNING USE OF MLS 



NL5 Textbook 



BEGINNING USE OF NLS 



This lesson discusses the basic concepts and commands you need 
to write and edit in HLS y that is, to enter information and 
make changes to it. Learning these concepts and commands is a 
vital step towards using the other tools in MLS, Before 
starting this lesson, you should knoy how to log in and enter 
8LS. 



Page 2-1 



NLS Textbook 
Beginning Use of $LS 



INTRODUCtlQN 

NLS is a computer system designed to help people work with 
information. It includes a wide range of tools, fro© a simple 
set of coiiands for writing, reading, and printing documents to 
sophisticated methods for retrieving and communicating 
information. 

Using NLS to write and edit has «any advantages over working ihy use HLS? 

with paper, pencils, and typewriters* with $LS it is easier to 

organize your thoughts as well as your documents and to make 

changes to what you write. Special tools help you collaborate 

with other people, send messages, prepare correspondence, and 

so on. Some unique concepts, which you will scon learn, are 

the basis of new and effective methods of working. 

You will begin by learning the basic writing and editing 
commands. Although this is only a small part ot what MLS 
offers, you will be able to see some obvious advantages right 
away. For eaaaiple, with a simple command, you can change a 
document by putting in a comma, taking out a phrase, or adding 
a paragraph, and ULS will automatically adjust the words and 
paragraphs so that they will look as if they were typed 
perfectly. 

ihy use the display terminal and the mouse? fchen you try to Display and 

talk to someone about a particular word on a piece of paper, mouse 

you use either the simple method of pointing tc it or the 

complex method of saying it is seven lines from the top and 

five words from the left, in MLS, you can use the mouse to 

point to what you are talking about. For example, if you are 

using NLS at a display work station and want to give a command 

to take out a particular comma displayed on the screen, you can 

simply use the mouse to point to the exact comma that you want 

ULS to remove. You can also use the mouse to point to words, 

sections of text, paragraphs or headings, and groups of 

paragraphs or neadings. 

NLS is divided into subsystems, which are sets of commands The Base 

related to particular activities. Normally, the subsystem that subsystem 

is automatically available when you enter ULS is the Base 

subsystem. It includes the most common commands for doing your 

everyday work, such as reading, writing, editing, printing, and 

filing inf ©nation. You will start learning KLS by working in 

Base. 



Page 2-2 



NLS Textbook 
Beginning Use of UtS 



VOCABULARY 

Base subsystem: A basic set of commands for reading, writing, 
editing, printing, and controlling files. 

<BC>: This stancs for Backspace Character. Pressing either 
the appropriate key on the keyboard or the left mouse button 
deletes the last character you typed. You can also use <BC> to 
delete a <BUG> or any step in a command* 

bug: To bug means to indicate a character on the screen by 
using the mouse to point at it and then typing <GK>. 

<BOG>: This notation means that you are to bus a character on 
the screen. 

bugmark: The mark displayed on the screen when you bug a 
character. The bugmark will be a highlighted character. 

<BW>: This stands for Backspace Nord. Pressing either the 
appropriate key on the keyboard or the left and middle mouse 
buttons deletes the last word you typed (plus any spaces, 
punctuation marks, or other characters following the word). 

<CD>: This stands for Command Delete. Pressing either the 
appropriate key on the keyboard or the middle louse button 
cancels any command you have not finished (that is, before you 
have given the final <0K>). ¥ou may then begin a new command. 

character: A single letter, number, punctuation mark, space, 
return character, or special control character. You type 
characters when giving commands and you store characters in 
files. 

command: An instruction you give to the computer to perform an 
action. When you give HLS a command, KLS will perform the 
action after you complete the command with a final <GK>. 

command word: A word that NLS knows is part of a command, 
usually a verb or a noun. 

command syntax: Tne general form of a command. 

Create File command: A Base subsystem command that makes a new 
file in your directory; the file will have the name you 
specify. 

Delete command: A Base subsystem command you can use to remove 
^information, such as a character, a word, or seme text. 

Page 2-3 



NLS Textbook 
Beginning Use of NLS 



file: An online work space, the computer's equivalent of a 
file folder in a filing cabinet, that you can fill with 
information that you type in or copy from another file* In 
NLS, you will always work with material in a file, whether you 
are reading, writing, or editing. 

Insert command: A Base subsystem comasand that lets you add new 
information to a file, such as a character, a word, some text, 
or a statement* 

invisible character: A character you cannot see on your 
screen, such as a space or a return character. 

Jump Link command: An NLS command you can use to move fro® one 
file to another. 

Move command: A Base subsystem command to reorder information 
in a file; for example, you can move one character to follow 
another. 

noise word: ihen you type a command word, 8LS may respond with 
a word or phrase in parentheses, called "noise words", to help 
you understand the purpose of the command or what you need to 
do to complete it. 

<OK>: This notation means that you are to press either the 
appropriate key on the keyboard or the right mouse button, to 
tell NLS that you have finished giving a command or part of a 
command. 

origin statement: The first statement in every file. It 
contains information such as the name of the directory, the 
name of the file, and the identity of the person who last 
updated the file. 

prompt: A series of characters that appears in the command 
window to tell you what you can do next. Prompts are always 
one or more uppercase letters followed by a colon (:). 

Replace command: A Base subsystem command to remove 
information, such as a character, a word, or seme text, and put 
new information in its place. 

<SP>: This stands for a space, that is, what you type with the 
space bar on the keyboard. In $L$, a space is an actual 
character that separates one word from another and that can be 
inserted, deleted, moved, or copied; it is not emptiness* 

statement: The basic unit of information in an ULS file. A 

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&LS Textbook 
Beginning Use of MLS 



statement may be a single character, a word, a title, a 
heading, some text, or a paragraph. Every character in an $LS 
file is in a statement. 

subsystem: ULS is divided into subsystems, which are sets of 
commands related to particular activities* 

text: k series of adjacent characters, which nay include 
punctuation and spaces, within a statement. JS single character 
may also be considered "text"* 

Update Mew command: A Base subsystem command to consolidate 
recent changes into your file. You may erase changes made 
between updates with a command discussed in a forthcoming 
lesson* 

visible character: A character you can see on your screen, 
such as a letter, number, or punctuation mark. 

windows: The screen on the display terminal is divided into 
four areas, called "windows**. 

command window: Mhen you use a command, the command is 
displayed in this window along with prompts and noise words* 
You also see the name of the subsystem you are working in* 

file window: This window displays files or parts of files* 

status window: This window displays messages to you from NLS 
or the Executive* 

viewspec window: This small window displays characters that 
tell you what kind of view you have of the file being 
displayed* 

word: A series of letters and/or numbers that are surrounded 
by spaces, punctuation marks, or any other characters that are 
not letters or numbers* *ILS does not consider the surrounding 
characters as part of the word* 

note that apostrophy (*) is considered as a punctuation mark 
so that "don't" is two words* 



Page 2-5 



$LS Textbook 
Beginning Use of NLS 



WINDOWS ON THE DISPLAY SCREEN 

You start an NLS session by logging in and entering NLS. When 
you enter NLS, you will see information displayed on your 
screen. The screen is actually divided into four sections 
called "windows**, and the information displayed in each window 
has an important function. 

status window: This window displays messages to you from NLS 
or the Executive. 



viewspec window: This small window displays characters that 
tell you what kind of view you have of the file being 
displayed. For basic information about viewing, see the 
lesson "Creating and Reading an Organized File". 

command window: When you use a command, the command is 
displayed in this window along with prompts and noise words. 
You also see the name of the subsystem you are working in. 

file window; This window displays files or parts of files; 
it is generally the largest window on the screen* 

COMMANDS 

NLS commands use siraple English words and were carefully 
designed to make it easy for you to figure out what you can do 
next* Isfhen you understand the basic form of NLS commands, it 
will be much easier for you to learn new commands and new 
subsystems. 

The general form of an NLS command is called "command syntax". 
The word "syntax" means "the arrangement of words in a 
sentence". NLS commands are like sentences in that they all 
have a similar fora. Every command you will learn in this 
lesson begins with a verb followed by a noun; for example, the 
command verb "Move" will be followed by one of three nouns. 
Character, Text, or Word. 



As you learn NLS, it will 
careful attention to your 
letter "d" as the command 
command window as you type 
recognizes a command word, 
command window so you can 
Thus, when you type "d"/ y 
window. Host of the time, 
after you type the first I 



be extremely 

command windo 

word "Delete" 

"d", you wil 

it displays 

make sure you 

ou will see " 

NLS will rec 

etter; howeve 



helpful 
w. NLS 
; if you 
1 see th 
the enti 
gave th 
Delete" 
ognize a 
r, somet 



for you to pay 
recognizes the 

look at the 
at when NLS 
re word in the 
e right command 
in the command 

command word 
imes more than 



Command syntax 



Command 
recognition 



Page 2-6 



ULS Textbook 
Beginning Use of MLS 



one command may start with the same letter, and you may have to 
type a space and then one or two letters before hLS will 
recognize the coMmand* 

Note that if you type more than is necessary, the other letters 
will he taken as specifying the next command word. It is 
important not to type ahead unless you are sure you know 
exactly what is necessary. 



Prompts and Noise liords 

Before you give a command and after you have given part of some 
commands, such as the verb "Delete" without a noun, you will 
see "C:" in the command window, "C:" is a prompt, a prompt is 
one or more uppercase letters, followed by a colon, that tell 
you what you can do next* In this case the "C" stands for 
"command word" and means you must type a command word. For 
example, after typing "d" for the verb ••Delete", you may type 
"c" tor the noun "Character"; HLS will recognize the command 
word after one letter and will then display a new prompt, 
"B/A:". A slash between letters in a prompt leans that you 
have a choice. Further information about command words and 
prompts will appear throughout this and other lessons. 

The word "at" in parentheses that follows the command word 
"Character" is called a "noise word". Soise words provide 
extra information to help you understand a command. In this 
case, the "(at)" means you now have to think about where the 
character is that you want to delete. 

After typing "dc", you have in your command window a typical 
MLS command made up of a verb and a noun with prompts and noise 
words. 



Canceling a Command 

After you begin a command, you may change your mind or realize 
that you have made a typing error. To get rid of a command 
that you have started, use <CD>. After you type <CD>, the 
command window will display only the subsystem name and the 
first prompt, "C:", which tells you that NLS is again ready for 
you to begin a command. For example: 



Page 2-7 



NLS Textbook 
Beginning Use of 8LS 



You type: Command window shows: 

d BASE Delete C: 

c BASE Delete Character (at) 8/A: 

<CD> BASE C: 

You may also use <BC> to erase only the last command word that 
you typed. 

MAKING A NEfc yQHK AREA: THE CREATE FILE COMMAND 

This lesson teaches you how to write and edit a letter in ULS. 
To enter information in KLS and Jceep it separate from your 
initial file, you need to make a new tile in which to store the 
information. To maice a new file # use the Create File command. 
In general* when you create a file, you should name it 
something that will be easy to remember when you want to look 
at it in the future. 

Because more than one command in Base begins with "c", you have space before 
to type , *<SP>cr" for 1LS to recognize "Create*; then type "f" commands 
for "File". You will see the prompt "B/T/CA3:". Since "T w 
means you can give the name of the new file by typing its you 
can then type the name. Follow the name by <0K> to tell MLS 
you have finished typing it. When you type <CK> # MLS will 
carry out the command. For example* this is how you would 
create a file named Dracula: 

You type: Command window shows: 

<SP>cr BASE Create C: 

f BASE Create File B/T/CA3: 

dracula BASE Create File dracula 

<OK> BASE C: 

When you create a file, NLS assumes you want to work in it and The origin 

automatically displays it. You will see a file that is empty statement 

except for a heading at the top of the file window. This 

heading is the origin statement of the file* ana every file has 

one. The origin statement contains information about the file 

such as the name of the directory and the name of the file. It 

also contains the identity of the person who created the file 

or/ if the file has been updated, the person who last updated 

it. 



Page 2-8 



NLS Textbook 
Beginning Use of MLS 



POINTING: BOGGIHG HITH THE MOOSE 

To use the basic writing and editing commands in NLS, you must 
first iearn how to point or "bug" with the mouse. Bold the 
mouse firmly but not tightly with your wrist on the table so 
you can touch the buttons on top of the mouse with your 
fingers. Roll the mouse across the table and match the cursor 
(traveling mark) isove correspondingly on the screen- To bug a 
specific character, move the cursor under it and type <QK> by 
pressing the right mouse button? we show this process as <B«G> 
in examples. You can bug a character whenever you see the 
letter M B" in a prompt- At all other times sowing the cursor 
has no effect. 

The character you bug will be replaced on the screen with a 
highlighted rectangle; this is called a "bugmark". If you 
accidentally try to bug an empty position (that is, where there 
is no character), NLS will mark a nearby character. It is good 
practice to look at the bugmark on your screen so that you can 
tell exactly what character you have bugged. 

If you see that you have bugged the wrong character, you can 
use <BC> to erase the <B0G>, by pressing the left souse button, 
and then bug the correct character. 

mriting: the insert statement commahd 

You enter information in an NLS file by using the Insert Using 
Statement command. The statement is the basic unit of statements in 

information In KLS. For example, if you write a letter in KLS, NLS 
every section of the letter should be a separate statement; the 
salutation would be one statement, the paragraphs in the body 
would be separate statements, and the closing would be another 
statement, fchen you ad<3 information to a new file, you add it 
in the foris of statements following the origin statement. 

After making a file named Dracula with the Create File command, 
you could practice using the Insert Statement command by 
writing the letter from Dracula below. 



Page 2-9 



NLS textbook 
Beginning Use of 8LS 



Hy Friend, 

Welcome to the Carpathains. I am expecting you anxiously. 
At three tomorrow the diligence will start fcr Bukovinaj a 
place for you on it is kept. At the Borgo Pass, ay carriage 
will be awaiting you and will bring you to me. I trust your 
journey from London has been a happy one, and that you sill 
enjoy your visit in ray beauteous land. 

Your Friend 



Dracula 

Each sect 
the exajap 
clear the 
instruct! 
blank lin 
Statement 
statement 
it. When 
choice by 



ion in the 

les ye show 

division o 

ons the sta 

es separati 

command an 

to show th 

you see th 

typing M My 



letter should be a separate statement. In 

a blank line between statements to sake 
f the text into statements* In these 
tements will appear on your screen without 
ng tfcea. Type "is"* to begin the Insert 
d then bug any character in the origin 
at you want your new statement to follow 
e "L/T/CAi:" prompt, respond to the M f tt 
Friend,<OK>". 



You type: 

i 

s 

<BUG> 

My Friend, 

<0K> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Insert C: 

BASE Insert Statement (to follow) B/A: 
BASE Insert Statement (to follow) LS 
BASE Insert Statement (to follow) My 
Friend, 
BASE c: 



For the second statement, type "is" for "Insert 
bug one of the characters in the new statement, 
paragraph will follow the salutation, *ihen typ 
paragraph, you do not have to type a return at 
line, since SLS will automatically continue ont 
Simply type all the words with the spaces betwe 
type the paragraph exactly as it is shown; late 
you will learn how to improve it by using editi 
you make mistakes while you are typing, you can 
erase the last character you typed and <B«> to 
word. If you type <BC> or <BW> several times, 
characters or words you typed will be erased, 
you have finished the paragraph. 



Statement" and 

so the 

ing in the long 
the end of each 
o the next line, 
en them. Try to 
r in this lesson 
ng commands. If 

use <BC> to 
erase the last 
the last several 
Type <QK> when 



You don't need 

carriage 

returns. 



Page 2-10 



NLS Textbook 
Beginning Use of NLS 



You type: 

i 
s 

<BUG> 
<QK> 

Welcome... 
land. 



<0K> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Insert C: 

BASE Insert Statement (to follow) 8/A: 
BASE Insert Statement (to follow) L: 
BASE Insert Statement (to follow) B/T/CA3: 
BASE Insert Statement (to follow) Welcome 
to the Carpathains. I an expecting you 
anxiously. At three tomorrow the diligence 
will start for Bukovina; a place for you on 
it is kept. At the Borgo Pass, my carriage 
will be awaiting you and will bring you to 
me. I trust your journey from London has 
been a happy one, and that you will enjoy 
your visit in my beauteous land. 
BASE C: 



Complete the letter by adding the last two statements (the 
closing and the name). Use the Insert Statement command and 
bug the statement that you want the new statement to follow. 
If you accicentally type the wrong command, use <CD> to cancel 
the command, and then start over. 

EDITING TEXT WITH DELETE, HOVE, REPLACE/ AMD INSERT 

After you enter information in an ULS file, ycu may want to 
correct errors or make changes to it. Delete, $ove, and 
Replace are three important command verbs for editing text. 
The Insert verb, which you have learned to use to add 
statements to a file, also lets you add text within statements. 

"Delete" enables you to remove Information from a file without 
TeavinTan empty space, ^s though the information you deleted 
was never there. For example, if you delete the second "r" in 
w p err feet", NLS will close up the empty space so the word will 
be "perfect*** 

"Move" allows you to reorder information in a file; MLS will 
adjust the text to compensate for the move. For example, if 
you moved the word "that" in "a phrase makes that sense" to 
follow the word "phrase", NLS would adjust the phrase to "a 
phrase that makes sense". 

"Replace" lets you remove information and put other information 
its place; that is, it combines Delete and Insert into one 
verb. If the new information you add is shorter or longer than 
the old information, ULS will compensate. For example, if you 



Deleting 



Moving 



Replacing 



Page 2-11 



NLS Textbook 
Beginning Use of MLS 



replace the word "good" with the yord "terrific" in the phrase 
"a good sentence", NLS will adjust the text so you have "a 
terrific sentence", 

Character, Text, and iord are three important command nouns for 
the parts of statements that you can delete, icve, replace, or 
insert, 

"Character" is a single letter, number, punctuation mark, fihat Text is 
space, return character, or special control character, "Text" 
is any series of characters, which may include punctuation and 
spaces, within a statement. In a command, you point to text by 
bugging the Beginning character and the ending character, 

"Word" is any series of letters and/or numbers surrounded by What a word Is 
spaces, punctuation marks, or any other characters that are not 
letters or numbers, (It does not have to be spelled correctly 
or mean something in English or any other language) ULS does 
not consider the surrounding characters as part of the word- 
In a command/ you point to a word by bugging any character in 
the word, Vcu may also bug the space between two words; $LS 
will consider the two words as one. Bugging between words is 
often very useful in editing, but be careful not to bug a space 
unless you want to affect both of the words around it. 

Hote that hyphenated words and contractions are not 
considered single words. For example, "inter-office" and 
"don't" are each considered to be two words. 

How do you decide when to use which of these nouns? When you 
want to delete, move, replace, or Insert a single letter, 
number/ or punctuation mark, use "Character", iihen you want to 
delete, move, replace, or insert a series of characters, 
whether it is three characters within a long word or 25 
characters that make up six words, use "Text". If you want to 
delete, move, replace, or insert one or two words surrounded by 
spaces or punctuation ©arks, use "word" so KLS will know how to 
adjust the spacing* 

Sote that when new information is typed in (see T prompt) it 
can be sore than one word or character even when one of those 
command nouns is used. 

To help you practice using Delete, Move, Replace, and Insert 
with Character, Text, and iiord, we have provided a list of 
corrections you can sake to the letter from Dracula and have 
suggested a way of waking each correction. For the first five 
corrections, we have shown the details of what you type and 
what you see on your screen when you use the command. After 

Page 2-12 



BASE 


Delete C: 




BASE 


Delete Character (at) 


e/a: 


B USE 


Delete Character (at) 


ok: 


BASE 


w • 





SLS textbook 
Beginning Use of ULS 



making the first five corrections/ you should be familiar 
enough with the form of the commands to be able to finish the 
rest of the corrections without seeing the details. 

Note that there is often more than one Kay tc accomplish a 
task in NLS. In the following we show one way for each task< 

1. Remove the comma that follows "Borgo Pass** by using the 
Delete Character command and bugging the coiia* »LS will 
automatically close up the space between "Pass" and "ray". 

You type: Command window shows: 

d 
c 
<B0G> 

<0K> 

2. Remove the word "be" between the words "will" ami 
"awaiting". Use the Delete lord command and bug either 
character in the word. Kotice how the space is adjusted when 
the word is deleted. 

You type: Command window shows: 

d BASE Delete C: 

w BASE Delete Word (at) B/A: 

<BUG> BASE Delete Hord (at) OK: 

<0K> BASE C: 

3. Change the word "awaiting" to "await" by deleting the 
"ing". Use the Delete Text command. Bug the "i" as the 
first cnaracter of the text and then bug the "g" as the last 
character of the text. 

You type: Command window shows: 

d BASE Delete C: 

t BASE Delete Text (at) B/A: 

<BUG> BASE Delete Text (at) (through) B/A: 

<BUG> BASE Delete Text (at) (through) GK: 

<0K> BASE C: 

4. Correct the spelling of "Carpathains" to "Carpathians" by 
moving the third "a" to follow the "i". Use the Move 
Cnaracter command. Bug the third "a" as the character to be 
moved and bug the "i" as the character it should follow. 



Page 2-13 



8LS Textbook 
Beginning Use of HLS 



You type: 


CoxKand window shows: 




m 


BASE Move C: 




c 


BASE Move Character (from) 


B/A/CT3: 


<80G> 


BASS Move Character (fro») 
(to tollow) B/A: 




<BUG> 


BASE Move Character (from) 
Cto follow) OK: 




<0K> 


BASE C: 





5. Change the phrase "a place for you on it is kept" to "a 
place on it is kept for you". Use the Move Text coaaand. 
For the text that you want to move, bug the space before "for 
you" as the first character of the text and the "u" in "you" 
as the last character of the text. For the character you 
want the text you are aioving to follow, bug the "t n in "it". 



You type: 



t 

<BUG> 

<BUG> 



<BUG> 
<0K> 



Coraffiand window shows: 

BASE Move C: 

BASE Move Text (from) B/A/CT3: 

BASE Move Text (iron) (through) B/A/ET3: 

BASE Move Text (from) (through) 

(to follow) B/A: 
BASE Move Text (from) (through) 

(to follow) OK: 
base c: 



6. Change the phrase "I aiu expecting you anxiously" to "I am 
anxiously expecting you", Use the Move Word couaand to move 
"anxiously" to follow "I am" by bugging any character in 
"anxiously" and then either character in "am". 

7. Use the Replace Character cownand to replace "F" in "Your 
Friend" with "f" by bugging the "F" and typing or bugging any 
"f". 

8. Change the word "beauteous" to "beautiful". Use the 
Replace Text command. Bug the "e" in "eous" as the first 
character of the text you want to replace and then the "s" as 
the last character of the text. Type the new text "iful" and 
then <QK>. 

9. Use the Replace uord coaaand to replace "visit" with 
"stay" by bugging any character in "visit" and typing "stay". 

11). Add a coiBiBa after "Your friend" to sake "Your friend/". 
Use the Insert Character coamand and bug the "d" as the 
character the new character should follow; then type or bug a 



Page 2-14 



MLS Textbook 
Beginning Use of NLS 



comma. Note that if you bug a comma as the character to be 
inserted, the comma that you bug is only copied. If will not 
be changed in any way* 

11. Add a new sentence "Sleep well tonight*** to follow the 
sentence f, I ant anxiously expecting you.*** Use the insert 
Text command and bug the period you want the new sentence to 
follow. Then type "<SPXSP>Sleep well tonight." and end with 
<0K>. Vou need to type the two spaces so there will be two 
spaces between the old sentence and the new sentence* 

12. Change the phrase "I trust your journey** to "I trust that 
your journey". Use the Insert iiord command and bug any 
character in the word "trust** as the word you want the new 
word to follows then type "that" as the new word and end with 
<0K>. 

If you see any other typing errors* use the editing commands 
you have just learned to correct them. 

Note that when you give a coaiaiand to move or insert a character 
or some text, you tell MLS where to put the character or text 
by bugging tne cnaracter it should follow; when you want to 
move or insert a word, you bug the word it should follow. ¥ou 
may also move or insert a word to follow a punctuation mark; 
simply bug the punctuation mark, and MLS will place the word 
after it, with a space as usual before the word. 

UPDATING A FILE: THE UPDATE HEN COMMAND 

Any time you have made a great many changes to a file or when 
you do not plan to work on it in the near future, you should 
update the file. In NLS, you can remove all the changes you 
made to a file since the last update; only when you update your 
file are the changes completely integrated into it. 



«haf to bug 



Consolidating 
changes 



You type: 

u 
f 

<OK> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Update C: 

BASE Update File OK/C: 

BASE c: 



READING A FILE: THE JUMP LINK COMMAND 

Suppose you leave NLS after creating, editing, and updating a 
file as described in this lesson, and you later want to see the 
file again. The next time you enter RLS your initial file will 
be displayed; if you want to see a different file, you need to 
luse a command to get to it. To reach any file in your 



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NLS Textbook 
Beginning Use ol NLS 



directory, use the Jump Link command. Simply type "jl" and 
then type the naate of the file/ a cosBa, and then <0K>. For 
example, this is ho« you could see the file naised Dracula after 
logging in and entering HLSi 

You type; Command window shows: 

j EASE Jump (to) i/C: 

1 BASE Jump (to) Link B/T/CA3: 

dracula, BASE Jump (to) Link dracula, 

<0K> BASE C: 



Page 2-16 



ULS Textbook 
Beginning Use of NLS 



EXERCISES 

1. Write the following answer to Dracula's letter and keep it 
separate irons any other information that is stored in your 
directory: 

Carpatiiians — at last I've arrived! thank yon for your kind 
welcome. 

<your naie> 

Now add the statement "Dracula/" before the first statement you 
added above. 

2. Use a single coumand to make each of the following 
corrections to the letter you wrote in Exercise 1: 

(a) Add "The" before "Carpathians". 

(b) Change "at last I've arrived" to "I've arrived at last", 
without using the command word "Text". Now use the same 
command to change it back again. 

(c) Change the single space between the two sentences to two 
spaces, without typing a space or moving the cursor acre than 
once. 



Page 2-17 



!*LS Textbook 
Beginning Use of $LS 



SUMMARY 

Several basic uis concepts were introduced in this lesson: 
bugging with tiie mouses using the verb-noun pattern to combine 
various cofiftand words* reading and responding to prompts* and 
typing only enough characters in a command word for MLS to 
recognize the command. These features are consistent in 8LS. 
The mouse is used for ail work in display NL5* and all the MLS 
subsystems use the saaie basic syntax tor coamands* Learning 
these elements will make it easy to learn the rest of NLS. 

This lesson has also taught you soae fcasic coaiands for writing 
and editing in ULS. You should now know how to create a file* 
add statements to it* and edit a statement in various ways such 
as removing or adding a character or a word. ¥ou have learned 
how to update a liie you have worked on and how to see it again 
the next tiice you enter »LS« We recomaend that you now read 
the lesson "Creating and Reading an Organized File". 



Page 2-18 



MLS Textbook 
Beginning Use of HLS 



SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES 

1. Use the Create File coimand and give the file a name that is 
different frcia the name of any otner file in your directory* 
Using the Insert Statement command and bugging the origin 
statement of the new file, type in the statement that begins 
with "Carpathians", Then use the Insert Statenent command 
again, bugging the statement you Just added and typing in the 
statement consisting of your name* To add a statement before 
the first statement you added, you must do exactly what you did 
to enter tnat statement, that is, use the Insert Statement 
command and bug the origin statement; type "Dracula," as the 
text of this statement* 

2. (a) The simplest way to do this is to give the Replace 
Character command and replace the "C" by "The C»* 

(b) Use the Move liord command. Bug the space between "at" and 
"last" to indicate the word to moved, and bug cny character in 
"arrived" to indicate the word it should follow. To change it 
back again, bug the space between "at" and "last" and then bug 
the second "-". iote that if you bug the space between "I've" 
and "arrived", ycu will be referring to "ve arrived", because 
the word ends at the punctuation mark. 

(c) Use the Insert Character command and bug the space 
following the tirst sentence as both the character to insert 
and the character it should follow. 



Page 2-19 



SLS Textbook 



GETTING INFORMATION A8D SERVICES 



MLS Textbook 



GETTIHG INFORMATION AMD SERVICES 



this lesson teaches you how to learn about NLS by asking 
questions of the system and hoy to request assistance and 
services froir system staff personnel by using message sending 
facilities. To understand this lesson, you should know how to 
log in and enter ULS and should have soae working experience 
with elementary MLS coraatands, described in the lesson 
"Beginning Use of MLS M « 



Page 3-1 



KLS Textbook 
Getting Information ana Services 



INTRODUCTION 

MLS was specially designed so that you can learn as you work. 
NLS commands use simple English words, and their basic* 
consistent term makes it easy for you to figure out what you 
can do next, ilaost all commands begin with a yerb followed by 
a noun, and prompts and noise words give you general 
information about what you can do next. However* there are 
■any tines when you «ill need more information. For example* 
when you see a "Cj m prompt* you know that you should type a 
command word — but what command word? Or perhaps you know there 
is a Transpose command, but you are not sure what it does. You 
can use KLS fchile you are working online to find out answers to 
questions like these as well as more general questions about 
NLS terms and procedures. 

Of course* there will inevitably be a time when you have a 
question that NLS cannot answer or when you are not even sure 
what kind of problem you have* and what you would really like 
to do is contact some person who is knowledgeable about %L$* 
The ACTION service* described in this lesson* provides an easy* 
effective method for getting advice or help from the system 
staff. ¥ou can also use ACTION to register a complaint, a 
suggestion, cr a compliment. 



Page 3-2 



ULS Textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



VOCABULARY 

ACTION: A service provided by the system staff that enables 
users to request assistance and register complaints, 
suggestions, or compliments. 

Help command: An ULS command to get information about 
commands, terms, and procedures* 

menu item: A subtopic, to guide you to related information, 
listed under a Help description. 

<NULL>: This notation represents a special character that 
means "nothing" or "none". 

question mark {?): ihen typed after any prompt, question mark 
Hill show you yhat you can do next. 

Message subsystem: The subsystem you can use to send messages 
and documents to other users. 



Page 3-3 



NLS textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



LEARNING iHAT ¥0U CAN 00 NEXT: QUESIlCli 8ARK 

The simplest way to learn about ULS while you work is by using 
question mark. Any time you are working with NLS (except in 
the middle of typing in text), you can type a question mark (?) 
to see a list of all the things you can do next. 



When typed after a 

command words that 

you are working in 

"BASE Ci", NLS wil 

subsystem commands 

type H i M to begin 

prompt; if you the 

that can follow Insert, such as Character, Word, and so on 



"CJ" prompt, question mark shows you all the 
you can use at that point. For example, if 
the Base subsystem and you type «"?** after 
1 list all the command words that begin Base 

One of these words is "Insert" • If you 
an Insert command, you will see another "C:" 
n type M ? M , NLS will list the command words 



You will observe that as guestion mark displays a list, your 
command window expands into your file window* ¥ou will 
temporarily be unable to see what is at the beginning of your 
file window^ however, the information in the file will not be 
affected. 

After you have studied the list of command words, you can type 
a character to begin one of them; your command window and file 
window will return to their previous sizes and »LS will 
continue as if you had not used question nark. 

In the following example, notice that M <>" precedes some 
command words. This means that you must type a space before 
you begin that word. 



Vou type: 

i 
? 



Command windou shows: 

BASE Insert C: 
BASS Insert ? 
Current alternatives are: 



Branch 

Character 

Date 

Edge 

Group 

Invisible 



Link 
Number 
PI ex 
OSendmail 
Statement 
Text 



OTime 
Visible 
Word 

<CTRL-Q>: HELP 
<CTRL-S>: SVUTAX 



? after C: 



<> before a 
command word 



w BASE Insert Word (to follow) B/A: 

After you have seen the list of command words, you may want to 
remove it from your screen before continuing* To do this, type 
a character that does not begin a command word and fiLS will 



Removing the 
list 



Page 3-4 



NLS Textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



return you to where you were before you used question aaark. If 
instead you choose not to continue, you can type <CD> to cancel 

the command. 

At some steps in comaands, NLS is waiting for you to bug 
something on the screen with your mouse, to type in some text, 
or to give the location of something, such as a file; that is, 
the next step is not a command word. In this case, question 
mark will show you what HLS expects by listing instructions 
that explain your choices. ¥ou can then follow one of the 
instructions or type <€D> to cancel the conaand* For exaople: 



You type: 



<CD> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Insert C: 

BASE Insert iord (to follow) 8/JU 
BASE Insert «ord (to follow) ? 
Please specify a W08D by 

BUG or ADDRESS 

or <CTI?L-Q> for HELP, or <CTRL-S> 

for Type <QK> to continue. 
BitSE c: 



Question mark is useful for reminding yourself about rarely 
used commands as well as for learning entirely new ones. ¥ou 
can combine the Information you get froa noise words, prompts, 
and question aiark to aove froi one step in a cosiand to the 
next. 

UOTE: If you are typing in text that has a "?•• within it, 
there is no problem. However, if you want to type text that 
begins with "? H (for example, if you want to insert a question 
mark at the end of a sentence with the Insert Character 
command), NLS will respond by listing your current 
alternatives. When you want ,f ? w to be taken as text, type 
<LIT> before the question mark. 

When ULS says ? 

If you enter a command letter which does not match any of the 
current alternatives, HLS will echo a ••?■•• In such a case 
simply enter the correct alternative and continue. 

COMPLETE IiFORMATIGS AB0U1 HLS: TKE HELP COWARD 

If you are not satisfied with what you can learn with question 
Bark, you can use the Help conmand while you are working online 
to get the roost detailed, up-to-date information on ULS that is 



? as text 



What you can 
learn froi 
Help 



Page 3-5 



NLS textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



available, iithout interrupting your work in progress, you can 
look up a definition of any BJLS command or term, or a 
description of 8LS procedures with advice on how to accomplish 
a particular task. ¥ou can use Help to find Use answers to 
specific questions, or you can Just browse through a general 
subject area. 



How to find fchat You Are Looking For 



To learn more about BiLS, begin by typing "h" for Help. When 
you see the "QK/T/CJU:" prompt, you can type a specific term or 
command for Help to look up or, if you don't have a specific 
term in mind, you can simply type <CK>. 

To look up a specific tern or command, type it after the Typing terms 
••OK/T/CAIS" prompt and then type <0K>. For example, you can for Help to 
look up a term by typing "statement" followed by <0K> or a look up 
command by typing "insert statement" followed by <QK>. ¥ou may 
type the terms in uppercase or lowercase, and they nay be one 
word or a number of words separated by spaces* 

As Help looks up a term, you will see the message "(Searching 
iiELP file)" in your command window* Depending on where the 
information is stored, you Bay also see the message "searching 
index" in your status window. When Help finds the definition, 
the message »«{ Searching HELP file)" will clear, and you will 
see a "</T: M prompt. So that your work In progress will not be 
disturbed, Help will create a special window below the command 
window to display the definition to you; when you have finished 
using Help, your file window will look as it did before you 
gave the Help command. Note also that Help temporarily changes 
your viewspecs; do not be disturbed if you see changes in your 
viewspec window while you are using Help* 

To return to your work in progress after reading one or more Leaving Help 
definitions, simply type <CD> to en6 the Help command* 

The following example shows how you could use Help to find the 
definition of "question mark" while you work in the Base 
subsystem. 



Page 3-6 



MLS textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



You type: Command window shows: 

h BASE Help 0K/T/CA3: 

question nsark<GK> BASE Help question mark 

{Searching HELP file)... 
</t: 

question 

Quest ionraark: (?) 

Typing a question mark at any point in 
an NLS command will show you the SL$ 
coKirand alternatives available at that 
point. After the list has printed 
you can go on as if you had not typed 
questionmark, See also: CTRL-Q, help. 

<CD> BASE C: 

NOTE: The term that is defined nay not always be exactly the 
same one that you typed. This is because the Help information 
is arranged information so that if you type a term that has a 
similar meaning or spelling as a tera known to Help, you will 
get the definition for the similar ter» (as in the exaaple 
above, where you typed "question mark 1 * and got the definition 
for "guestionraark"). 

If the terra you type is not like any term defined in Help or if Hhen Help 

you make a typing error so that lielp does not recognize it/ you doesn't find a 

will see the term, as you typed it, followed by a question mark term 

in your status window* ¥ou can then try typing a different 

term or the correct spelling after the "K/f:" prompt. 

When you type only <0K> after the "GI/T/CAa:* pro»pt that you Learning about 

see when you give the Help coatiaand, Help displays a definition a subsystes 

of the subsystei that you have been working in. This is to 

provide you with general information and a list of topics to 

guide you to the particular information you need. For exaaple, 

if you were working in the Base subsystem and typed "h" and 

then <0K>, you would see this: 



Page 3-1 



NL5 Textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



You type: 
h 

<0K> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Help 0K/T/LA3: 

BASE Help 

(Searching HELP file)... 

</T: 

Base Subsystem 

Base is the hone subsystei in NLS. 
It has commands that allow you to read, 
write, and modify information online and 
output it to hardcopy, among other things. 

1. how to use the Base subsystem 

2. commands in Base 



How to Read a Help Description 

The descriptions that Help provides are one or two paragraphs, 
short enough to fit on your display screen* The paragraphs are 
written in simple, nontechnical language. They cover as much 
information as possible and indicate related subjects and 
commands for you to look up. 

Help includes a definition of every RLS command. The form of 
these definitions is always the same. The first line of the 
definition shows the syntax of the command, followed by a 
functional description of the command. If you do not know how 
to read coaimand syntax, use Help to look up the syntax terms, 
such as SOURCE, DESTINATION and CONTENT. Soie commands have 
unique syntax terms that represent choices special to that 
command, and these are defined below the definition of the 
command. If you look up a command verb that can be followed by 
any of several comnand nouns, you will see a list of the 
various combinations of verb and noun and you can choose an 
appropriate definition. 

Every Help description that has relevant subtopics will have a 
list below it, called a "menu 1 *. For example, the definition of 
the Base subsystem shown in the example above has a menu with 
two items, "1. how to use the Base subsystem" and "2. commands 
in Base". To see more information about a subject presented in 
one of the menu items, simply type its number followed by <0K>. 



When a menu is too long to fit on the screen, you will see the 
message "(do you want to see the rest of the menu) Y/K:", and 
you can read the rest of the menu by typing "y" for "yes". You 
should jot down the number of any menu items that interest you. 



Definitions of 
commands 



Henu 



Long menus 



Page 3-8 



ULS Textbook 
Getting Information and services 



before continuing to the rest of the menu. You can ask to see 
an item from anywhere in the menu* even if it is not being 
displayed. If you do not wish to read the rest of the menu* 
type #, n" for "no". You nay then type the number of one of the 
menu items* type an entirely new term for Help to look up, or 
type <CD> to return to your work in progress* 

Besides including menus of subtopics, many Help descriptions See and See 

contain suggestions of related concepts and ccimands* with also 

"See" and "See also" followed by a list of terms. The terms 

are separated by commas; when two or ©ore words are separated 

only by spaces* they should be considered a single term. To 

see more about any of these terms* simply type the term after 

the "</T: M prompt and end with <OK>. 

The following example shows how you could use Help to look up a 
tersR/ choose a menu item to get more information* look up a 
related tern* and then return to your work in progress. 

You type: Command window shows: 

ft BASE Help 0K/T/CA3: 

subsystem<GK> BASE Help > QK/T/CA3: subsystem 

(Searching HELP file) 

(HELP) < >/T: 

SUBSYSTEMS IK NLS 

«hen SUBSYSTEM is found in a command 

syntax expression* you may use a 

subsystem name as a command word. 

The following is a list of all liLS 

subsystems* Some of them are automatically 

loaded for you when you enter MLS* others 

are easily loaded by the user. Otherwise* 

all NLS subsystems work in the same way. 

See going* or the individual subystem* 

below* for more information. 

1. AFMFormat: formatting Air 
Force manuals 

2. Base: reading* writing, 
modifying* filing* and printing 

3. Calculator: doing simple 
arithmetic 

4. Decimal: formatting files in 
the Air Force decimal format 

5. Format: providing aids for 
using Output Processor 
directives 



page 3-9 



ULS Textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



2<0K> 



aessage<GK> 



6* Graphics: creating and 

modifying diagrams 
7* Hyphen: adding words to the 

hyphenation dictionary 

8. Letter: formatting a business 
letter 

9. Message: interface to SHDffSG 

10. Modify: special purpose 
editing conaands 

11. Programs: compiling, loading, 
debugging, managing, and adding 
tools to the AKW 

(do you want to see the rest of the 
menu?) > Y/N: 

Yes 
HELP > </t: 

12- Proof: checking COM formats on 
a fektronix screen 

13. Publish: generating sections 
of documents 

14. Sendasail: locating current 
idents 

15. Executive System: file 
handling, other tools 

2 

(KELP) > </f: 

Base: reading, writing, modifying, filing, 
and printing 
By default, you are in the Base subsystem 
when you enter HLS. 



Base subsystem 

ease is the hone subsystem in 8LS. It has 
commands that allow you to read, write, and 
modify information online and output it to 
hardcopy, among other things, 
message 

(Searching HELP file) 
(HELP) > </T: 
message - one of the following: 

1. a message sent through the HLSi 
Sendmail system 

2. a message sent through the 
Executive System (fEUEX or 
TQPS-20) SfiBHSG 

3. one's file of Executive Systea 



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NLS Textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



(TENEX or T0PS-2G) messages 
4. the Message Subsystem for handling 
SiDMSGes via NLS 
<CD> BASE C: 

NOTE: If you type question mark after the H </T:" prompt, you < and ~ 
will see that two of your alternatives are left angle bracket 
(<) and up arrow (~). Typing a left angle bracket followed by 
<OK> will recall the previous display of information. Typing 
an up arrow followed by <CK> will display the information one 
level up in the outline of Help information- 
Many people find that working with Help is awkward at ilhy use Help? 
first— they are used to turning to a person or a familiar 
reference manual when they need assistance- The experience of 
using Help is different from thumbing through a traditional 
reference manual. The response is sometimes rather slow 
because Help has to search through a great deal of information, 
and, of course. Help is in no way as flexible as a person. 
However, it is worthwhile to work with Help. Mith practice, 
using Help becomes easy and comfortable and gives you access to 
a great wealth of information without your ever having to leave 
the terminal. The ability to use Help will make you a more 
self-suff icent ULS user; you will be able to find answers when 
you need then and take on new tasks with more confidence. 

You may occasionally have trouble getting an answer that is 
easy for you to understand, because there are many different 
kinds of ULS users; some users know a lot about computers, 
whereas many are using them for the first time, lie have tried 
to anticipate the terms you need, but we have not always 
succeeded. If you have suggestions for terms, please send them 
to Feedback by the method described below. 

COM«UHICATIIiG WITH PEOPLE: ACTION 

You can send a telegram-like message to the system staff at any 
time to ask a question, ask for assistance, or offer 
suggestions, complaints, or compliments. This service is 
called ACTIOS, which accepts all messages and returns an 
answer. 

«hen questions reach ACTIGU, an system staff member answers What ACTION 
them. Hhen ACTION receives a request for services a system does 
staff member performs the services and Informs the requestor of 
the outcome or explains why the service was not performed. 
Reports of bugs are passed on to programmers and the planned 



Page 3-11 



MLS Textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



disposition reported back to the user. Suggestions are sent to 
the appropriate people ana acknowledgments are sent to the 
user. 



Sending a Message to Action: The Message Subsystem 

To send a message to Action, you can use the Message subsystem. 
The Hessage subsystem enables you to handle Executive System 
(TEHEX or TOPS-20) S8DHSG communications through tiLS* Uith 
this subsystem you can move your messages into NLS # sort 
messages^ and automatically send messages through SUD8SG via 
NLS. To reach the Message subsystem, type "e" tor "Execute" 
then "p» for "Program". This will allow you to load the 
message program by typing "1" for load and "p" tor "Program" 
followed by "message." Terminate your command by typing <QK>. 
After the system messages "Loading User Program* and "Subsystem 
MESSAGE Mow Available (Attached )" appear you can type "g" for 
"Goto" and then "m" for "Message" followed by <CK>. "MESSAGE 
C:" will appear in your command window when Message is ready 
for a command. 

You type: Command window shows: 

e BASE Execute (command in) C: 

p BASE Execute (command in) Programs 

PROGRAMS C: 
1 PROGRAMS Load C: 

p PROGRAMS Load program 8/T/CA3: 

message<OK> PROGRAMS Load program message > ••• 

BASE c: 
gm<OK> BASE Goto (subsystem) Message 

MESSAGE C: 

The Message command "Send" prompts you to provide information 
for a message, and then sends an Executive System S8DHSG to the 
people whose usernames or idents you specify. To send a branch 
of the NLS file you have loaded to Action you type "s" for 
"Send" then "b" for "Branch". The network address ACT10K 
should be specified following the prompt: (To:). The Message 
system will prompt you for a carbon copy list and a title. The 
message system wil verify the distribution list and give you 
the opportunity to add to the list before sending the mail. 
Note that the command pays attention to viewspecs. 



Page 3-12 



HLS textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



You type: 

s 

b 

<BUG> 

<0K> 

action<OK> 

<NULL> 
Help<UK> 



q<OK> 



Command window shows: 

MESSAGE Send C: 

MESSAGE Send Branch (at) B/A: 

MESSAGE Send Branch (at) > ¥: 

(to:) B/f/A: 

(To:)action 

(Cc:) B/t/a: 

(Subject:) B/T/A: 

(Subject:) B/f/A: Belp 

verifyng distribution list 

To: ACTIONS 

Type <GK> to continue. 

(Send the message now?(Type N to add to 

list)) ¥/n: 

¥es ~ ... 

ACTION 

Delivered, 

MESSAGE C: 

MESSAGE Quit GK/C: 

BASE c: 



Sending your message is equivalent to dropping a letter in a 
bail box, not to delivery. The Execuive nailer checks for 
messages frequently but the nail may not reach Action until 
shortly after it was sent. 

The Message command "Copy" copies your MAIL. TXT file to the 
address you point to. It changes the format to make the 
messages easy to handle in NLS. 

>w shows: 

C: 

Message (File) GK/T/EA3: 

Message (File) 

(to follow) B/A: 

(FILE) "(»AIL>TXT)« L: 



You type: 


Command wind 


c 


MESSAGE Copy 


m<OK> 


MESSAGE Copy 


<QK> 


MESSAGE Copy 




"(MAIL. TXT )" 


<BUG> 


Copy Message 


<0K> 


MESSAGE c: 



For further information on the message subsystem see 
<userguides#iaessage#>. 



Page 3-13 



MLS Textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



EXERCISES 

1. How can you find out what you can delete? 

2. The word "Visible" may appear when you use question math} 
how do you find cut what it areans? 

3. How would you ask to have your password changed? 



Page 3-14 



NLS Textbook 
Getting Information and Services 



SUMMARY 

there are several ways to get Information or assistance when 
you are using &L3. it any point in a connand* you nay type a 
question mark and ULS will list your present alternatives. The 
Help command enables you to ask for definitions of terns and 
other infornation. ¥ou nay easily send a brief nessage or 
question to ACTION with the Message subsystem, and you Hill get 
an answer. 

MLS is a large system that includes many powerful tools and 
techniques. Question mark. Help, and ACTIOS enable you to 
learn about MLS as you work and to become a self-sufficient and 
creative user. Even if you know enough to get your work done, 
you can always learn new coanands and more effective aethods, 
as well as surprising tricks— this means that you can use NLS 
for a wide range of tasks as well as satisfy your sense of 
curiosity anc play. 



Page 3-15 



MLS Textbook 
Setting Information and Services 



SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES 

1. At "BASE C:" # type "d" for "Delete" and then type a question 
©ark. You can then use one of the command nouns or type <CD> 
to cancel the co»mand. 

2. At "BASE C:", type "h" for "Help" and then type "visible"/ 
followed by <QK>. When you have finished reading the 
definition, type <CD>. 

3. Use the Goto command to reach the Message subsystem. Hhen 
in Message, use the send comaiand, as described in this lesson, 
to send a message yith a title of your choice and the text from 
an &SLS file as the message. Use the Quit coumand to return to 
the Base subsystem, 



Page 3-16 



ELS Textbook 



CREATING HUB READING AH ORGANIZED FILE 



HLS Textbook 



CREATING AMD 8EAD1SG m QRGAHIZED FILE 



this lesson teaches you ho« to create and read an organized 
file in MLS «ith the Base subsystem. ¥ou should already know 
how to log in and create simple 1LS files. 



Page 4-1 



NLS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



IHTRQDUCTIGN 

In this lesson/ you will learn how to write a document in MLS 
and then read it* Writing in NLS means adding text to a file 
by typing at your keyboard or by copying text that is already 
stored in the computer* A valuable difference between yriting 
documents in NLS and writing them on typewriters is the unique 
way that text in ULS files can be structured* The paragraphs 
and headings are organized into an outline that tells 11LS the 
relationships between the statements* For example, the first 
chapter title would be at position 1 in the outline, the first 
subheading in that chapter would be at position la, and the 
first paragraph following that subheading would be at position 
lal* This outline forro is called "hierarchical structure*** 

This lesson Kill teach you »ore about hierarchical structure* 
You will see how it helps you organize your thoughts and your 
writing, and how it makes it possible for you to look at your 
online document froaa isany different points of view* 

Reading in ULS is Much more flexible than reading text that is 
printed in a book. Hith a book, you can either read each 
section straight through, from beginning to end, or you can 
scan quickly across pages, picking out a sentence here and 
there* In $LS you can read the paragraphs on your screen, one 
after the other, but there are also aany different and useful 
ways to look at an online document* For example, you can see 
only the headings, or only the headings and the first line of 
every paragraph* the other lines will still be there, but you 
do not see thea until you need then* 



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HLS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



VOCABULARY 

Back: A command word that refers to the statement immediately 
before the stateaent you indicate, regardless of level* 

hierarchical structure: The structure of MLS files; an outline 
form that shows the relationship between the statements. 

<INS>: This stands for Insert. Pressing the appropriate key 
on the keyboard puts you in insert mode* 

insert mode: ¥ou enter this mode when you type <IMS> in place 
of the final <0K> at the end of the Insert Statement command. 
In insert mode, you can continually add statements until you 
type <€D>. 

Insert Statement command: A Base subsystem command that lets 
you add statements to a file* 

Jump command: An MLS command to move from one point in a file 
to another, or from one file to another* 

level: A number that indicates how far up or down a statement 
is in the hierarchical structure of a file* 

level clipping: Using vieuspecs to display a Halted nuafeer of 
levels in a tile* 

line clipping: Using viewspecs to display a United number of 
lines for each stateaent. 

Hext: A command word that refers to the statement immediately 
following the stateaent you indicate, regardless of level* 

origin stateaent: The first statement in every file* When you 
create a file, HLS automatically makes an origin statement 
containing the name of the file and other pertinent 
information. The origin statement is at level 0, that Is, one 
level above the first-level statements; it is the only 
statement that can be at this level* 

predecessor: The predecessor of a statement is the preceding 
statement that is at the same level and has the same 
upstatement* Hot every statement has a predecessor* 

statement number: A series of alternating numbers and letters 
that indicates the exact position of a statenent within the 
hierarchical structure of a file* 



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*iLS textbook 
Creating and leading an Organized File 



structure: The arrangement of statements in a tile. MLS files 
have a hierarchical structure, 

substateiaent: A substateaent of a statement is any statement 
that is one level belon it. Hot every statement has a 
substateisent. 

substructure: All of the statements one or store levels below a 
particular statement. Sot every statement has substructure. 

successor: The successor of a statement is the next statement 
that is at the same level and has the same upstateaient. Hot 
every statement has a successor. 

up statement: The upstatement of a statement is the statement 
that is one level above it. Every statement except the origin 
statement has an upstatenent. 

viewspecs: Single-letter specifications of hoy you see your 
file. For example, with one viewspec you will see blank lines 
between statements, and with another you will see the 
statements without blank lines between then. 



Page 4-4 



ULS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



ORGANIZED FILES: HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE 

Humankind has classified most of the things in the world* 
including the world itself/ into hierarchies. The world is 
divided into continents* the continents are divided into 
countries, countries are divided into states* states into 
counties, and so on. When we refer to hierarchical structure 
in 8LS files* we mean the arrangement of statements into an 
outline iorff that shows the relationships between the 
statements. This is like any natural hierarchy, because you 
arrange the statements in the outline according to their 
content. 

We can use the example of the world to show he* you would 
express a natural hierarchy with NL$ structure* Each item in 
the following outline is a separate statement. Hote that 
although each statement shown here is only one line long, a 
statement in a hierarchy can also be an entire paragraph. $LS 
uses identing to show the relationships between the statements 
Each statement that is "below" another statement in the 
hierarchy is indented three character positions froi that 
statement. 

World 

Africa 

Ethiopia 

Kenya 

Zairbia 
Antarctica 
Asia 

India 

Japan 

Thailand 
Australia 

Australia 

lew Zealand 



page 4-5 



HLS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



Europe 

Austria 

Ireland 

Spain 
North America 

Canada 

Cuba 

Mexico 
South America 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Chile 

He could fill in this outline by including all the countries Level 
under each continent and then adding states under countries, 
counties under states, and so on, until we reached individual 
buildings or people in thea. The hierarchy in the exaiaple has 
three levels/ the World statenent is at level 1, the continents 
are one level below it, at level 2, and the countries are at 
level 3. If »e added states under countries* the hierarchy 
would then have four levels. 



Two useful HLS teras for describing the relationships between Substatesent 
statements in a file are "substateEent** and "upstafeiaent". A and 
substatement of a statement is any statenent that is one level upstatement 
below it* In the preceding example/ Ethiopia, Kenya, and 
Zambia are all substateraents of Africa, and Antarctica has no 
substatements. The upstatement of a stateaent is the statement 
that is one level above it. For exaaiple, the upstateaent for 
Ethiopia, Kenya, or Zambia is Africa, and the upstatement for 
Antarctica is world. 

We use the term "substructure*' to refer to all of the Substructure 

statements that are one or more levels below a particular 

statement. In the preceding example, all of the continents and 

the countries below each continent are the substructure of the 

World statement. The two countries Australia and New Zealand, 

below the continent Australia, are the substructure of 

Page 4-6 



NLS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



Australia. Since Antarctica has no countries below it, it has 
no substructure, and since none of the countries have 
statements below theni, none of them have substructure. 

This lesson shows how you would create a table of contents, 
another familiar form of hierarchical structure. The table of 
contents structure is especially appropriate because many 
people use JILS for producing hierarchically structured 
documents. To create a file named Gulliver containing the 
partial table of contents shown on the following page, you 
would first give the Create File connoand and type "guiliver" as 
the name of the file, linen you do this, UhS automatically 
aakes an origin statement containing information about the 
file. ¥ou would then be ready to insert the table of contents 
following the origin statement. 



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BiLS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



A Letter iroffi Cast. Gulliver to his Cousin Syspson 

The Publisher to the teader 

The Contents 

Part 1* A ioyage to Lilliput 

Chap. II. The Emperor of Lilliput* attended by several 
of the nobility/ cones to see the author in his 
confinement. 

Chap. III. The author diverts the Emperor and his 
nobility of both sexes* in a very uncoiircn manner. 

Part II. A Moyage to Brobdingnag 

Chap. I. A great storm described* the long-boat sent to 
fetch water, the author goes liith it to discover the 
country. A description of the inhabitants. 

Chap. II. A description of the farmer's daughter. The 
author carried to a Barket-toKn* and then to the 
metropolis. 

Chap. III. The author sent for to court. The Queen buys 
him of his master the farmer and presents hiia to the 
King. 

Part III. A Voyage to Laputa, Balnibarbl* Clubbdubdrib* 
Luggnagg, and Japan 

Chap. I. The author sets out on his third voyage* is 
taken by pirates, fie is received into Laputa. 

Chap. II. The humours and dispositions of the Laputians 
described. 

Chap. Ill* A phenoienon solved by nodern philosophy and 
astronomy. The Laputians* great improvements in the 
latter. 

Notes and Coiments 



Page 4-8 



BiLS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



WRITING: IfiSERT MODE 



When you wan 
of contents 
directly foi 
statements, 
statement an 
and end that 
the last one 
place of the 
command that 
insert mode, 
command. 



t to type a series of statements su 

on the preceding page, with each ne 

lowing the last one, use insert mod 

Once you are in insert mode, you s 

d end it with <QK>, then type the n 

with <0K>, and so on. Each states 

you typed. To enter insert node, 

final <QK> at the end of the Inser 

you use to enter the first stateie 

type <C0> just as you would to can 



ch as the table 
w statement 
e to enter the 
imply type a 
ext statement 
ent will follow 
type <INS> in 
t Statement 
nt. To leave 
eel any other 



When you use the Insert Statement command, you see the prompt 
"L:"; the "l" in this prompt means that you can indicate the 
relative level of the statement you are inserting, that is, its 
level relative to the statement it follows. This enables you 
to arrange the statements into a hierarchy as you type them. 
Type ,, d<QK> ,i after the prompt if you want the statement to be 
down one level from the one it follows or o u<0K> M if you want 
it to be up one level. If you want the statement to be up more 



than one level, simply type another 



»u' 



for each level; for 



example, "uuu<QK>" would make the statement be up three levels 
from the statement it follows. If you want the statement to be 
at the same level as the statement it follows, type <0K> after 
the "L:" prompt or simply begin typing the statement. 

SOTE: you cannot insert a statement to be down more than one 
level from the one it follows. 



ihen you begin inserting stateme 
the first statement that you typ 
statement. The origin statement 
first-level statements that you 
words, the origin statement is a 
statements in the file are the s 
statement. However, you oo not 
the statement that follows the o 
statement that you insert to fol 
be at level 1, ULS automatically 



nts into a newly created file, 
e will follow the origin 

is the upstatement of all the 
add to the file; in other 
t level and all of the other 
ubstructure of the origin 
need to indicate the level of 
rigin statement; since any 
low the origin statement must 

assumes level 1 in this case. 



After giving the Create File command to create a file named 
Gulliver, you could use insert mode to add to it the table of 
contents, adjusting the level of each statement after the 
"L/T/CA3:** prompt when necessary* Entering the first two 
statements would look like this: 



inserting to 
follow the 
origin 
statement 



Page 4-9 



Creating and 



NLS Textbook 
fading an Organized File 



You type: 

i 

s 

<8UG> 

<0K> 

A Letter.*. 

Sympson 
<INS> 

<0K> 

The Publisher 

...Reader<GK> 
<0K> 



Command yindow shows: 

BASE Insert C: 

BASE Insert Statement (to follow) B/A: 
BASE Insert Statement (to follow) L: 
BASE Insert Statement (to follow) S/T/CA3 
BASE Insert Statement (to follow) L: 

A Letter from Capt. Gulliver 

to his Cousin Sympson 
LJ 

8/T/CA3: 

The Publisher to the Reader 
L: 
B/T/CA3: 



Entering the next three statements would look like this: 



you type: 

The Contents 

<0K> 
d<OK> 
Part I.*. 

<0K> 
d<QK> 
Chap. II... 

<0K> 



Command window shows: 

The Contents 

L: 

"d" fi/T/CAl: 

Part I. A Voyage to Lilliput 

L: 

"d" B/T/CAi: 

Chap. II. The Emperor of Lilliput* attended 

by several of the nobility, comes to see 

the author in his confinement. 
L: 



You could continue in this way to enter the entire table of 
contents; however, you would not see all of it in the file 
window. It is important for you to realize that as long as you 
type each statement and follow it with <0K>, it will be added 
to your file even though you cannot see it being added. Of 
course, you can always see the statement that you are typing in 
the command window. 

Notice that since "Notes and Comments" is at the highest level 
in the hierarchy, it is two levels up from the statement it 
follows (Chap. Ill of Part III). Thus, to add the statement 
"Notes and Ccmients** two levels up from the statement it 
follows, you would type ,, uu<OK>" after the M L: M prompt. Then, 
after inserting that final statement, you would type <CD> after 
the M L: M prompt to leave insert mode. 

INSERTING INDIVIDUAL STATEMENTS 

After using insert mode to type a series of statements into a 



Page 4-10 



BASE Insert 


C: 








BASE insert 


Statement 


(to 


follow) 


b/a: 


BASE Insert 


Statement 


(to 


folio*) 


l: 


BASE Insert 


Statement 


(to 


follow) 


«d" 


B/T/tAUS 










BASE Insert 


Statement 


(to 


follow) 


•i d « 



NLS Textbook 
Creatine, and Steading an Organized File 



file, you may find that you want to add statements to what you 
typed. ¥ou can use the Insert Statement command to add one or 
more statements anywhere in a file. Just indicate which 
statement you want the new statement or statements to follow. 
To add one statement, end the Insert Statement command with 
<QK>? to aoo laore than one stateient, enter insert mode as 
usual by typing <IliS> in place of the final <0K>. For example, 
to add Chap. I to Part I in the fable of contents, you could 
use the Insert Statement command, bug the Part I statement, and 
add the Chap. I statement to follow it/ down one level. 

you type: Command window shows: 

i 
s 

<BUG> 
d<OK> 

Chap. I... BASE Insert Statement (to follow) "d" Chap 

I. The author is shipwrecked and swiis for 
his life; gets safe on shore in the country 
of Liiiiput, is made a prisoner, and carried 
up the country. 

<0K> BASE C: 

When you insert a statement to follow another at the same level Inserting to 

and the statement it is to follow has substructure, the follow a 

statement you are inserting will come after the substructure. statement with 

For example, ft you added a Part IV stateaent to the table of substructure 

contents and indicated that it should follow Part III at the 

saaie level, Part IV woulo come after Chap. Ill of Part III, one 

level higher than Chap. Ill and at the same level as Part III. 

Note that there is often ssore than one way to add a statenent 

at a particular position in a hierarchically structured file. 

For example, if you inserted a Part IV stateaent to follow 

Chap. Ill and indicated that it should be up one level, the 

result would be the same as if you inserted it to follow Part 

III at the same level. 

READING: THE JO#P COMMAND 

If you have added statements to a file at a place that is not 
displayed on your screen/ you will probably want to look at 
those statements. To read part of an MLS file that is not 
currently displayed on your screen/ you can use One of the many 
forms of the Jump command to find the statement you want to 
read and display it at the top of the file window. The NLS 
command verb for reading is called "Jump" because you can leap 
from one statement to any other without displaying any of the 

Page 4-11 



ULS textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



statements between them, ihen you use the Jump command verb, 
you Mill see a prompt "B/C:" that means you have to tell what 
point in a file you want to jump to by bugging something or by 
using a command word. 



The simplest way to indicate which statement 
to is to bug it. This allows you to read aio 
After you bug the statement, you will see a 
means that you may change viewspecs (as desc 
lesson)- To keep the same view, simply type 
statement you bugged will then move to the t 
window and ycu will see the next series of s 
follow it. For example, after inserting the 
into the Gulliver file/ ycu could read beyon 
your screen by using Jump and bugging any ch 
statement in your file window. 



you want to jump 
re of what follows, 
"¥:** prompt, which 
ribed later in this 

<CK>. The 
op of your file 
tatements that 

table of contents 
d what shows on 
aracter in the last 



¥ou type: 

3 

<BUG> 

<QK> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Jump (to) B/C: 
BASE Jump (to) V: 
BASE c: 



Jumping to a 
statement you 
bug 



After reading the entire fable of contents, you could return to 
the beginning of the file by using the Jump Origin command. 
This command displays the origin statement of your file at the 
top of your file window. 



Ju«p Origin 



¥ou type: 

3 
o 

<BUG> 

<0K> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Jump (to) fi/C: 
BASE Juffip (to) Origin B/A: 
BASE Juffip (to) Origin ¥: 
BASE C: 



JUMPIfiG WITH STRUCTURE: «EXT, BACK, SUCCESSOR, AND PREDECESSOR 

Four important command words that you can use with the verb 
"Jump" are Next, Back, Successor* and Predecessor. Like 
"upstatement" and "substateraent", these terms describe 
structural relationships between statements in an ULS file. 

"Next" is the statement immediately following the statement 
that you indicate and "Back" is the statement immediately 
before the one you indicate. These command words can be used 
with ••Jufflp" to display a statement not currently in the file 
window* For example, to see the statement following the last 
statement in your file window, you can give the Juap Next 



Next and Back 



Page 4-12 



8LS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



command and bug the state»ent. Since there is another command 
word that can follow dump and begins with "n", you must type 
"<SP>n" for "Next". 

You type: Command window shows: 

J BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

<SP>n BASE Jump (to) Next B/A: 

<BUG> BASE Jump (to) Next v: 

<0K> BASE C: 

If you then give the Jump Back command and bug the statement at 
the top of your file window, you will see the itr«ediately 
preceding statement. 

You type: Command window shows: 

j BASE Juip (to) B/C: 

b BASE Jump (to) Back B/A: 

<BUG> BASE Jump (to) Back V: 

<0K> BASE C: 

The "successor" of a statement is the next statement that is at Successor and 

the same level and has the same upstateaent; not every predecessor 

statement has a successor* The "predecessor" of a statement is 

the preceding statement that is at the sane level and has the 

same upstatement; not every statement has a predecessor. To 

see various sections of a document that are at the sane level, 

you can Ju»p to the successors and predecessors of the 

statements. For example, if the Part II statement of the table 

of contents were showing on your screen and you used Junp to 

display the successor of Part II, you would see Part III at the 

top of your file window. 

You type: Command window shows: 

j BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

s BASE Jump (to) Successor B/A: 

<80G> BASE Jump (to) Successor V: 

<OK> BASE C: 

If you then used Jump to display the predecessor of Part III# 
you would see Part II at the top of your file window. 



Page 4-13 



NLS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



You type: command window shows: 

3 BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

p BASE Jump (to) Predecessor B/A: 

<8UG> BASE Jump (to) Predecessor V: 

<OK> BASE CS 

NOTE: It you try to jump to the Next, Back, successor, or 
predecessor cf a statement that does not have one, the 
statement you indicate will appear at the top ct your file 
window. 

CHANGING VIEfcS: VIEWSPECS 

NLS enables you to look at your tile from several different 
points of view* For example, you can display your file with 
blank lines between the statements- When you view your file 
with blank lines, it does not mean that liiS puts empty spaces 
into your filei NLS merely displays your file in a different 
way. 

"Viewspecs" are single-letter specifications that determine Set Viewspecs 

what kind of vie* you have of your file. Some of the viewspecs 

that are currently controlling your view are displayed in the 

viewspec window. «hen you enter MLS, certain viewspecs are 

automatically in effect, such as those that let you see all 

lines of all statements in your file. To change your view, you 

can use the Set Viewspecs command. Type M <SP>se»* for "Set" and 

h v ii for' "Viewspecs". ¥ou will then see a "V:** prompt, which 

means that you can type one or more viewspecs followed by <0K>. 

Uppercase viewspecs produce different results than lowercase 

viewspecs, so be sure to type the proper case* 

Viewing Blank Lines between Statements 

Viewspecs y and 2 control the blank lines between statements. 

Viewspec: Heans: 

y Blank lines between statements on Viewspecs y 

2 Blank lines between statements off and z 

For example, to see your tile with blank lines between the 
Statements, you can use the Set Viewspecs command as follows: 



Page 4-14 



NLS textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



You types 


Command wj 


Lndoy shows: 


<SP>se 

V 

y 

<0K> 


BASE Set 
BASE Set 
BASE Set 
BASE c: 


c: 

Viewspecs V: 
Viewspecs M y 



Many people find that files are easier to read with viewspec y 
You can change your view in other ways by setting other 
viewspecs while keeping the blank lines between statements on. 



Viewing Statement lumbers 

Viewspecs not only enable you to control the way you see your 
file, they also enable you to display helpful information that 
HLS maintains about each statements for example, you can 
display your file with statement numbers* A statement number 
is a series cf alternating numbers and letters that indicates 
the exact position ot a statement within the hierarchical 
structure oi a file. The first statement after the origin 
statement is always statement 1. The first sufcstatement after 
statement 1 is statement la, and the successor of statement 1 
is statement 2. To see the statement numbers for your file, 
you can use the Set Viewspecs command with viewspec au 



You type: 

<SP>se 
v 
m 
<0K> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Set C: 
BASE Set Viewspecs V: 
BASE set Viewspecs «■« V: 
BASE C: 



Viewspec n 



By viewing your file with statement numbers on, you can 
determine the level of a particular statement* Iiote that a 
statement number is not part of a statement; ycu cannot use 
editing commands to delete or change it. 

To see your file again without the statement numbers, use the 
Set Viewspecs command with viewspec n. 



iewspec n 



Viewspec: 



n 



Means: 

Statement numbers on 
Statement numbers off 



Page 4-15 



NLS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



Level and Line Clipping Viewspecs 

To get an overall picture ol a book, a reader often looks at a Viewspec d 

list of the chapter titles if one has been specially prepared. 

In NLS, you can easily display only the main headings in any 

document by using viewspecs to display a limited number of 

levels in the file. This is called "level clipping". For 

example, you can use the Set Viewspecs command with viewspec d 

to "show first level only'*. 

The viewspec window on your screen keeps you informed of how 
many levels are being displayed, notice that if you set 
viewspec d, you will see "1 ILL" in the vieuspec window. This 
means that one level and all lines are being displayed. 

If you want to see more than one level, you can display the two Viewspec b 

highest levels, the three highest levels, or any number of 

levels up to 6 4. After setting viewspec d, you can set 

viewspec t>, which means "show one level more"; you will then 

see two levels of statements in the file window and "2 ALL" in 

the viewspec window. To display three levels, you can add 

another viewspec b for "show one level more", for four levels, 

you can add still another viewspec b, and so on. Thus, if you 

were viewing a file with ail levels and all lines and you 

wanteo to see only the top three levels, you could set your 

viewspecs as follows: 

You type: Command window shows: 

<SP>se BASE Set C: 

v BASE Set Viewspecs V: 

dbb BASE Set Viewspecs "dbb" V: 

<0K> BASE C: 

Viewspec a means "show one level less". For example, if three Viewspec a 
levels were being displayed and you wanted to see only two, you 
could set viewspec a. 

It is important to understand that level clipping viewspecs 
display a number of levels more or less than the number that is 
in effect according to your previous viewspecs, not necessarily 
a number of levels more or less than what you see on your 
screen. For example, ALL levels is 64 levels/ so if you set 
viewspec a when you have ALL levels showing, you will have 63 
levels; this will change your view only if the part of the file 
you are looking at contains a statement at level 64. 



Page 4-16 



MLS Textbook 
Creating ana Reading an Organized File 



NOTE: Mo matter what levels are to be displayed according to 
your viewspecs, NLS will always show the statement that is at 
the top of the file window and any other statements following 
it at the saie level. For example, if you set viewspec d to 
"show tirst level only" when there are two third-level 
statements at the beginning of your file window, you will see 
those third-level statements and then only the first-level 
statements following theiru 



You can use viewspec c to display all levels, 
in effect when you enter NLS. 



If you specify two viewspecs that contradict each other, such 
as viewspec c to show the first level only and viewspec c to 
show all levels, the viewspec you type last will take effect* 
For example, if you gave the com»and *'$et Viewspecs dc", 
viewspec c would talce effect and viewspec d would be ignored. 

You can use viewspecs to control the number ct lines displayed 
for each statement in the sane way that you can control the 
number of levels. This is called "line clipping". Use 
viewspec t to display only the first line in each statement, 
viewspec r to add lines, viewspec q to take them away, and 
viewspec s to show all lines. Viewspec s is in effect when you 
enter NLS. 

Notice that your viewspec fcindow shows the number of lines 
currently being displayed. For example, if you set viewspec t 
to show first lines only while you have level clipping 
viewspecs to show three levels, you will see «*3 1" in your 
viewspec window. 

The following list summarizes the level and line clipping 
viewspecs: 

Viewspec: Means: 

a Show one level less 

b Show one level more 

c Show all levels 

d Show first level only 

q Show one line less 

r Show one line more 

s Show all lines 

t Show first lines only 

Level and line clipping viewspecs can be used together very 
effectively. For example, you could set viewspecs d, b, and t 



Top statement 
below viewspec 
levels 



This viewspec is Viewspec c 



Viewspecs g, 
r, s, and t 



Viewspecs w 
and x 



Page 4-17 



ULS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



to see the first lines of all statements at tfc€ two highest 
levels/ tor a good overall outline oi a dccufflert. Two more 
viewspecs, « and x, combine level and line clipping. 

Viewspec: Keans: 

w Show ail lines and all levels 

x Show one line and one level only 

CHANGING ¥IE*S AS YOU READS JUMPING UI1B VIEWSPECS 

When you give any Jump command other than Jump Link, you will 
see a "v;" prompt. This prompt enables you to change your 
viewspecs «hile you juap. When the statement you juap to is 
displayed, any viewspecs that you type after the **V:" will take 
effect. Rensember that no natter what levels are to be 
displayed according to your viewspecs, NLS will always show the 
statement you jump to and any statements following it at the 
saaje level* 

Changing viewspecs while you Jump is a good way to look for 
something in a structured file. You could begin by looking at 
the file with only one level and one line, Ju»p to the heading 
that interests you and give a viewspec that ati^s another level, 
check the subheadings and jump to one «ith a viewspec that adds 
another level, and so on, until you find the statenent you want 
to read. You could then juap to that statement with a viewspec 
to show ail lines so you could read the entire paragraph. 



Page 4-18 



NLS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



EXERCISES 

1* ihat is the upstateraent of the Part III stateaent in the 
table of contents? ihat is the upstateaent of "notes and 
Consents"? 

2. What is the Next of "The Contents"*? «hat is the Back? 

3« Mhat is the successor of the Part I stateaent? ihat is the 
predecessor? 

4. What is the statement nuasber of the Chap. I statement in 
Part III? fthat is the statement number of its upstatejaent? 

SUGGESTED PROJECT 

To gain more experience fcith creating and reading structured 
files, make a new file and type in the aanagement structure of 
your own department or organization- tfhen the hierarchy of 
aanagers ana non-managers is complete, use level clipping 
viewspecs to see the Managers at the top levels of the 
hierarchy. 



Page 4-19 



NLS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



SUMMARY 

The ability to arrange the intonation in your ULS file into a 
hierarchical structure provides several iaportant advantages 
for writing and reading. Working with structured files not 
only gives you new tools to help you write, it often changes 
the way you write. When composing a document in HLS, you are 
encouraged to plan the overall structure of the document, and 
this often means that a document written in MLS is more 
carefully organized than one written by hand or on a 
typewriter. You can use level clipping viewspecs to see the 
organization of your document at a glance. 

Mhen you learn to use editing cosnands to change a structured 
file/ you will see that it is very easy to reorganize a 
well-structured document > with one coauand you can move a 
chapter fron the beginning to the end of a document or delete a 
section of unnecessary or redundant information without 
disturbing the rest of the text. The lesson that teaches you 
how to do this is "Editing: An Intermediate Lesson". 



Page 4-20 



NLS Textbook 
Creating and Reading an Organized File 



SOLUTIONS TC EXERCISES 

1. the upstatement of the Part III statement is "The Contents". 
Since "notes and Comments" is a first-level statement, its 
upstateaient is the origin statement. 

2. The Part I statement is the Next of "The Contents". "The 
Publisher to the Header" is the Back of "The Contents". 

3. The successor of the Part I statement is the Part II 
statement. The Part I statement does not have a predecessor. 

4. The Chap* I statement in Part III has the statement nusber 
3C1; its upstatefflent has the statement number 3C. 



Page 4-21 



HLS Textbook 



EDITING; AN INTERMEDIATE LESSON 



NLS Textboolc 



£0111116: JIH INTSRMEDIA1E LESSOR 



this lesson teaches you to revise a document fcy taking 
advantage of the hierarchical structure of NLS files* Vou will 
learn how to combine basic editing cowhands yith an 
understanding of structured files and how to have HLS 
automatically repeat covsands for you* Before reading this 
lesson* you should be familiar with the information presented 
in the lessons "Beginning Use of HLS M and "Creating and Reading 
an Organized File". 



Page 5-1 



MLS Textbook 
Editing: An Intermediate Lesson 



IHTRQDOCTIOfi 

The hierarchical structure of ULS files wakes it possible for 
you to control logical sections of a document. It is not only 
easier to read an online document, it is much easier to totally 
reorganize one. For example, you can move a chapter from the 
beginning of a document to the end with one simple command. 
The editing command verbs Delete, Move, Replace, and Insert, 
which you have already learned to use with Character, Text, and 
iord, also apply to units of structure, such as Statement. For 
example. Just as you can use the command Delete Character to 
remove a character, you can use the command Delete Statement to 
remove an entire paragraph. ¥ou will learn two new units of 
structure and two new editng command verbs in this lesson. 

Revising a document with MLS can mean much more than simply 
correcting typing errors or grammar. ¥ou can essentially 
create a new document by taking an existing document and using 
editing commands to revise it, without having to retype any of 
the original text. As you revise, you can use level and line 
clipping viewspecs to see an overall picture of the 
organization of the document and can easily use a few editing 
commands to reorganize it. 



Page 5-2 



HLS Textbook 
Editing: An Intermediate Lesson 



VOCABULARY 

branch: A statement and all of its substructure (if it has 
any). A branch may be a single statement that has no 
statements below it or an origin statement that includes the 
entire file. 

Copy command: A Base subsystem command that reproduces 
information in a file/ such as a character/ a word/ some text, 
a statement^ a branch/ or a group. 

file return ring: A list of the last ten files that you 
displayed. 

group: A series of branches that have the same upstatement. 

Jump File Return command: An NLS command that enables you to 
display one of the files that are in your file return ring. 
When NLS returns you to the file, the statement that you 
displayed last will be at the top of the file sindow and the 
same viewspecs will be in effect. 

<RC>: This stands for Repeat Command. Pressing either the 
appropriate key on the keyboard or the middle and right mouse 
buttons puts you in repeat mode* 

repeat mode: ¥ou enter this mode when you type <RC> in place 
of the final <QK> in a command. The command is repeated up to 
the step where you have to bug something or type some text. 
After you give the final <0K> for the repeated command/ it will 
automatically repeat again/ and so on, until you type <CD>. 
You also enter this mode if you type <UC> when KL3 is ready for 
a command/ in which case the last command you gave is repeated 
until you type <CD>. 

Transpose command: A Base subsystem command that enables you 
to make information such as characters/ words, text/ 
statements/ branches/ or groups exchange places. 



Page 5-3 



HLS Textbook 
Editing: An Intermediate Lesson 



STRUCTURE: BRANCH AID GROUP 

Besides a statement, there are other units of structure that 
you can change with a single editing command. Two of these 
structural units are "branch" and "group". 

A brancn is a statement and all of its substructure (if it has 
any). A branch can be a single statement that has no 
statements below it/ or a statement with several levels of 
substatements below it* One branch may have several other 
branches within it. 



What a branch 
is 



A group is any series of branches that have the same 
upstatement. A group may consist of branches that are 
statements without substatements as well as branches that have 
several levels of substructure. To point to a group/ bug the 
top statement of the first branch in the group and then bug the 
top statement of the last branch in the group. Whenever you 
designate a group/ you must always indicate two things: the 
first branch in the group and the last branch in the group. 



To Jump to a branch 
that is at the top o 
branch in the group- 
Group" command.} ¥o 
you have already lea 
important concepts w 
can use the command 
verbs such as Delete 



or a group/ simply jump to the statement 
f the branch or at the top of the first 

(There is no "Jump to Branch" or "Jump to 
u can do this with any of the Juap commands 
rned. Branch and group are especially 
hen you edit structured tiles, because you 
words Branch and Group with editing command 
and Vove. 



What a group 
is 



EDITING ilTb STRUCTURE 

The hierarchical structure of 
sections of structure/ such a 
the same way you can control 
can use any of the editing co 
Replace, and Insert/ to chang 
your document. Rather than r 
easily use structure editing 
information and organize accu 
sense. 



NLS files enables you to control 
s Statement, Branch/ and Group/ in 
Character/ text, and Word. ¥ou 
mmand verbs/ such as Delete/ Move/ 
e the organization or content of 
etype an entire document/ you can 
commands to remove inaccurate 
rate information so that it makes 



While you are editing structure, you should take advantage of 
level and line clipping viewspecs so you can see more of your 
file as you work. You can show only one or two levels to get 
an overall idea of the structure of the document; then when you 
use structure editing commands/ the entire statement/ branch, 
or group will be affected even though it is not displayed. For 



Viewspecs do 
not affect 
editing. 



Page 5-4 



NLS Textbook 
Editing: Hn Intermediate Lesson 



example, you can delete a branch by bugging its topmost 
statement and MLS will reiiove all the information in the 
branch, even if all of it is not displayed. 

In more elementary lessons* we suggested in detail how to build 
practice files; however* because of the large amount of 
information you can control yith structural editing, it yculd 
be tedious for you to create a practice file. Instead, to help 
you practice editing yith structure, we have prepared a file 
named Sports in the MLS-Documentation directory. This file 
contains an outline of professional sports teams and includes 
many errors that you can correct with the commands described in 
this lesson. Since the files in the KLS~Documentation 
directory are protected so that you can not make any changes to 
them, you can edit the information in the Sports file only by 
copying it into a file in your own directory. This lesson 
shows hoy you could copy the information into a file of your 
own and gives many examples of commands as they would be used 
to revise it. 

COPYING 

One of the great advantages of using NLS is that you can copy 
material froi other files in your oyn directory or from files 
in other directories and then edit yhatever you have copied to 
suit yourself, for example, if you wanted to yrite a business 
letter that «as similar but not exactly the same as one written 
online by a co-yorker, you could easily copy the letter and 
then simply make the necessary changes without retyping it. 

To copy information from one file to another file or from one 
part of a file to another, use the command verb "Copy". Follow 
it by a noun describing what you want to copy, such as 
Character, Text, $ord. Statement, Branch, or Group. The 
original information remains untouched. The copied information 
is like any new information in your file; you can delete it, 
move it, replace it/ and even copy it. 

ihen you use Copy to reproduce sections of structure, such as a 
statement, a branch* or a group, you can place the copied 
structure anywhere in a file* at any level; you indicate the 
statement that you want it to follow and the relative level, 
just as you do when you use the Insert Statement command- 
Copying froff a File in Another Directory 
While there is a simple way to copy a whole file from one 



Page 5-5 



MLS Textbook 
Editing: An Intermediate Lesson 



directory or filename to another (Copy File), in the following 
we use a slightly lore coiplex method of obtaining a copy of an 
existing file, to illustrate a way to copy a portion of a file. 

To copy information from the file naaed Sports in the 
HLS-Documentation directory into a file of the sane name in 
your own directory, you would first give the Create File 
command and type "sports" as the name of the file. Your next 
step would be to look at the file in the NLS-Dccu«entaticn 
directory. 

You can use the Juap Link coaaana to display another file that Seeing another 

is either in your own directory or in another directory. The file 

"link" that you type is a series of characters indicating where 

to Jump to (and thus what to show in your file window). To see 

a file that is in another directory, you must type the link as 

follows: the directory name, a comma, the file name, and 

another comma. For example, this is how you would display the 

Sports file in the NLS-Docuaentation directory: 

You type: Command window shows: 

j base auap (to) b/c: 

1 BASE Juap (to) Link B/T/tAH: 

nls-documentation, BASE *3ump (to) Link nls-docuraentation, 

sports, sports, 

<0K> BASE C: 

You would then see the beginning of the file in your file 
window* To get an overall picture of the contents of the file, 
you could use the Set Viewspecs coaaand with viewspec d, to 
show the first level only. If you set viewspec d after juaping 
to the Sports file, you would see the three main headings in 
the file, one for each of the sports baseball, football, and 
basketball. 

To copy the three first-level branches into the empty Sports 
file that you created, you could use the Copy Group command. 
When you copy material froa a file after setting level or line 
clipping viewspecs, you are copying everything that is in those 
branches, not Just what you see on the screen* So you could 
have vieuspec d on as you copy the branches, and although you 
would see only the first-level stateaents in the file, you 
would be copying everything- Viewspecs control only what you 
see, not what is actually there. 

In the Copy Group command, you specify the group you want to Copy Group 
copy by bugging two stateaents, one for the first branch in the 
group and one for the last branch in the group. For the first 

Page 5-6 



iiLS textbook 
Editing: An Intermediate Lesson 



branch to be copied from ttie Sports file, yoii would bug one of 
the characters in the baseball heading, and for the last 
branch, one of the characters in the basketball heading. To 
specify what yon want the copied group to follow, you would 
type your directory name, a comma, the file naae "sports", 
another comma, and then <0K>. This tells NLS that you want the 
group to follow the origin statement of the Sports file in your 
own directory, After typing <0K>, you would see "QPT/L:", 
prompting you for the level of the group relative to the 
statement it will follow; here you would simply type another 
<0K>. 

You type: Command window shows; 

c BASE Copy C: 

g BASE Copy Group (from) 8/A/CT3: 

<B(JG> BASE Copy Group (fro®) (through) 8/A/CT3: 

<8tfG> BASE Copy Group (from) (through) 

(to follow) B/A: 

directory, BASE Copy Group (fro») (through) 

sports, (to follow) directory, sports. A: 

<0K> BASE Copy Group (from) (through) 

(to follow) directory, sports, L/E**3: 

<0&> BASE C: 

Your Sports file would then contain a copy of the group that 
you Dugged. 

Hotice that you can add information to a file that is not 
currently displayed* To display your new Sports file, you 
could use the Jump Link coaiaand, as follows: 

You type: Corasand window shows: 

j BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

1 BASE Jump (to) Link B/T/CA3: 

sports, BASE Juip (to) Link sports, 

<QK> BASE C: 

In general, you can copy material fron any file that you can You nay not 
read/ and you can read any file that you have access to; a see recent 
forthcoming lesson will contain information about file access. changes* 
However, if you copy from a file in someone else's directory 
and that person is still making changes to the file, you will 
not be able to read or copy the latest changes* You can only 
copy from the file as it was the last tiae it was updated. 
Note that when you display a file that soaeone else is editing, 
NLS will infora you with a message in your status window* 



Page 5-7 



ULS Textbook 
Editing; An Intemediate Lesson 



Copying within a File 



fo practi 
another, 
file. It 
an Americ 
under Ama 
simply "in 
Division 
"cw" for 
the word 



ce copying inform 
you could improve 
you set viewspec 
an League heading 
rican League, one 
estern". To copy 
heading to follow 
"Copy Herd", bug 
that the copied w 



ation from 
the baseb 

s to show 
under Bas 
"Eastern 
the word 
the word 

"Division" 

ord should 



one part o 
all section 
three level 
eball and t 
Division" a 
"Division* 
"Western", 
, and then 

follow* 



f a file to 

of the Sports 
s, you would see 
wo headings 
nd the other 
from the Eastern 
you could type 
bug "Western" as 



Copy Word 



You type: 

c 

w 

<BUG> 

<BUG> 

<0K> 

You might also n 
National League 
Statement cosman 
League* For exa 
you would type " 
and then bug Hat 
statement should 
have to type "d" 
heading should b 

You type: 

c 

s 

<By*G> 

<BVQ> 



<0K> 



Command window shows: 



BASE Copy C: 

BASE Copy Siord (from) B/A/CTi: 

BASE Copy Word (from) (to follow) B/a: 

BASE Copy Word (from) (to follow) OK: 

BASE C: 



otice that we 
into division 
to copy the 
«ple, to copy 
cs" for "Copy 
ional League 
follow. Aft 
for "down" t 
e one level d 



have failed to separate the 
s* You could use the Copy 
division napes from the American 
the heading "Eastern Division", 
Statement", bug Eastern Division, 
as the statement that the copied 
er the "OPT/L:" prompt, you would 
o indicate that the division 
own from the league heading. 



Copy Statement 



Command window shows: 



BASE Copy 
BASE Copy 
BASE Copy 
BASE Copy 

L/£**3: 
BASE Copy 

L: 
BASE c: 



Statement 
Statement 
Statement 



(from) 
(from) 
(from) 



B/A/CTi: 
(to follow) 
(to follow) 



B/a: 



Statement (from) (to follow) "d 1 



There would then be an Eastern Division heading under National 
League. You could use Copy Statement similarly to copy the 
heading "Western Division" to follow this heading at the same 
level. Later in this lesson you will learn how to move the 
teams in the National League into the appropriate divisions. 



Page 5-8 



8LS Textbook 
Editing: An Intermediate Lesson 



TRANSPOSING 

The command verb "Transpose" enables you to make information 
such as characters, words, text, statements, branches, or 
groups exchange places, ihen you transpose structure, the 
statements, branches, or groups do not have to be at the same 
level. 

For example, if you were to jump to the football heading in the 
Sports file and had all levels showing {but no blank lines 
between statements), you would see that in the American 
Conference of the national Football League, the list of 
divisions includes "Denver Broncos" and the first team under it 
is "Western Division". To make these two statestents change 
places, you would type "ts M for "Transpose Statement", bug one 
of the characters in Denver Broncos, and then bug one in 
Mestern Division. 



Transpose 
Statement 



You type 

t 
s 

<BUG> 
<BOG> 

<0K> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Transpose C: 

BASE Transpose Statement (at) B/A: 

BASE Transpose statement (at) (and) B/A: 

BASE Transpose Statement (at) (and) 

GIC/E**3: 
BASE CJ 



Suppose you then wanted to reverse the order of the Central 
Division and the Eastern Division. You would type "tb" for 
"Transpose Branch", bug one of the characters in Central 
Division, and then bug one in Eastern Division. 



You type: 

t 

b 

<B0G> 

<8UG> 

<0K> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Transpose C: 

BASE Transpose Branch (at) B/A: 

BASE Transpose Branch (at) (and) B/A: 

BASE Transpose Branch (at) (and) OK/t**J: 

BASE c: 



Transpose 
Branch 



To use Transpose Group, you »ust point to the two groups that 
you want to exchange places. When you use the Transpose Group 
coauaand, you will see the "B/A:" prompt four tiroes; each prompt 
means that you have to incicate a statenent. After the first 
"B/A:" prompt, bug the top statement of the first branch in the 
first group, and after the second "8/ A:" prompt, bug the top 
statement of the last branch in the first group. After the 
third "B/A:" prompt, bug the top statement of the first branch 
in the second group, and after the fourth "B/A: w prompt, bug 



Transpose 
Group 



Page 5-9 



HLS Textbook 
Editing: An Intermediate Lesson 



the top statement of the last branch in the second group* If 
you watch your prompts and noise words carefully, you will be 
able to tell what to do next. 

DELETING STRUCTURE 

The easiest way to remove unnecessary information in an MLS 
tile is to delete it* Using the Delete command verb to remove 
structure will show quite dramatically how an editing command 
can affect an entire section. 

For example, in the Sports file, if you read the list of teams 
under the Eastern Division in the American Conference of the 
National Football League, you would see that tie last teaw in 
the list is the Denver Athletes, To remove this tea© from the 
list, you would type "ds" for "Delete Statement" and bug the 
statement. 



Delete 
Statement 



Vou type: 

d 
s 

<BUG> 
<0K> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Delete C: 

BASE Delete Statement (at) 8/A: 

BASE Delete Statement (at) CK/t**3 
BASE C: 



In the list cf divisions in the American Conference of the 
National Football League, there is an Unknown Division with 
three unknown teams. The statement "Unknown Division" yith its 
three substatements is a branch. To remove this entire 
division, you woulo type "do" for "Delete Branch" and bug one 
of the characters in the statement "Unknown Division". 



Delete Branch 



You type: 

d 
b 

<BUG> 
<OK> 



Command window shows: 

BASS Delete C: 

BASE Delete Branch (at) B/A: 

BASE Delete Branch (at) CK/C**3 
BASE C: 



In the list cf teams for the Pacific Division in the Western 
Conference of the national Basketball Association, there is a 
group of teams that does not belong: the Tacosa Crows, the 
Salt Lake City Bees, and the Santa Barbara Haves* To remove 
these three teams with one command, you would type "dg" for 
"Delete Croup", bug one of the characters in Tacoraa Crows, and 
then bug one in Santa Barbara fcaves. 



Delete Group 



Page 5-10 



NLS Textbook 
Editings An Intermediate Lesson 



You type: 

d 
g 

<BUG> 
<BUG> 
<0K> 

HOVIHG SfRUClURE 



Command window shows: 



\* • 



BASE 


Delete 


BASE 


Delete 


BASE 


Delete 


BASE 


Delete 


BASE 


c: 



Group (at) B/A: 

Group (at) (through) B/A: 

Group (at) (through) OK/£**X 



You can use the Move command verb to transfer structure, such 
as a statement/ a branch, or a group, from one place to another 
within a file or fro» one file to another. 



For example, in 
Jets is listed u 
Eastern Division 
division/ you wo 
the characters i 
move, and then b 
Patriots as the 
After the "OPT/L 
of the moved sta 
relative level a 
Insert statement 
level as Hew Eng 
the "OPT/L:" pr 

You type: 



s 

<BUS> 
<BUG> 

<0K> 



the Sports 
nder the C 
• To move 
uld type " 
n New York 
ug one of 

statement 
2 M prompt, 
teaent in 
iter the ** 
command* 
land patri 
t. 



file, the football team Hew York 
entral Division but belongs in the 

this teaR under the appropriate 
as" for M J*ove Statement", bug one of 

Jets as the statement you want to 
the characters in lew England 
you want $ew York Jets to follow. 

you must indicate the relative level 
the same way that you indicate the 
L/T/CA3:" proipt when you use the 

to place Hew York Jets at the same 
ots, you would simply type <GK> after 



Command window shows: 



BASE 
BASE 

BASE 
BASE 

L/£**3: 

base c: 



Move 
Hove 
Move 
Move 



c: 

Statement 
Statement 
Statement 



(from) 
(from) 
(from) 



B/A/CT3: 
(to follow) 
(to follow) 



E/A: 



¥ou may not al 
a file* you ma 
You can use Mo 
moving it to a 
it follows the 
Hets is at div 
Atlantic Divis 
for "Move Stat 
Nets and one o 
at the "QPT/L: 
York to be at 



ways want to move the st 
y want only to change it 
ve to change the level o 
nother place in the file 

correct statement, the 
ision level and should b 
ion. to change its leve 
ement", bug one of the c 
f the characters in Phil 
" prompt, type <0K> to i 
the same level as Philad 



ructure to a new 
s hierarchical p 
f the structure 
For example, 
basketball team 
e at teai level 
1, you would typ 
haracters in New 
adelphia 76ers, 
ndicate that you 
elphia. 



place in 
osition. 
without 
although 
New York 
under the 

etl SB e M 
18 %» 

York 
and then, 
want $ew 



Move Statement 



Changing the 
level of a 
statement 



Page 5-11 



NLS Textbook 
Editing: An Intermediate Lesson 



NOTE: You cannot use the 8ove Statement command to move a 
statement that has substructure; such a statement is the 
beginning of a branch and can be moved only as a branch. 

To move a branch, type "mb" for "Move Branch* 1 , bug the top 
statement of the branch, and then bug the statement you want 
the branch to follow. After the "GPT/L:" prompt, indicate if 
you want the branch to be up, down, or at the same level as the 
statement it will follow, just as you do when you use the 
Insert Statement command. 

To move a group, type "»g" for **#ove Group", bug the top 
statement of the first branch in the group after the first 
"B/A:" prompt and the top statement of the last branch in the 
group after the second "B/A:*" prompt. After the third "B/A:" 
prompt, bug the statement you want the group to follow. Then, 
after the "QPT/l:" prompt, indicate if you want the branch to 
be up, down or at the sane level as the statement it will 
follow. 

To practice using Hove, you could move the baseball teams in 
the National League into the appropriate divisions. The 
Eastern Division should include Chicago, Montreal, Hew York, 
Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis; the Western Division 
should include Atlanta, Cincinnati, Houston, Los Angeles, San 
Diego, and San Francisco* 

REPLACING STRUCTURE 

You can use the Replace command verb to remove structure, such 
as a statement, a branch, or a group, and put new information 
in its place. 

With the Replace Statement command, you can type or bug a new 
statement to replace the old one. For example, in the Sports 
file, you could use the Replace Statement command to change the 
heading "Baseball" to "Major Baseball Leagues*. 



You type: 

r 
s 

<BUG> 
Major... 
Leagues 
<0K> 



Command window shows 

BASE Replace C: 

BASE Replace Statement (at) B/A: 

BASE Replace Statement (at) (by) B/T/CA3: 

BASE Replace Statement (at) (by) Major 

Baseball Leagues OK: 
BASE c: 



Moving a 
statement with 
substructure 

Move Branch 



Move Group 



Replace 
Statement 



The Replace Branch command removes a branch from your file and 
gives you the choice of either bugging a branch to put in its 



Replace Branch 



Page 5-12 



MLS Textbook 
Editing: An Intermediate Lesson 



place or typing a statement. If you type a statement, it will 
be added in place of the top statement of the branch that is 
being replaced. 

The Replace Group command removes a group freir your file and Replace Group 
gives you tiu choice of either bugging a group to put in its 
place or typing a statement. If you type a statement, it will 
be added in place of the top statement of the first branch in 
the group that is being replaced. 

INSERTING STRUCTURE 

If you consider the "B/T/A:" prompt that you see when you use Bugging 

the Insert Statement command, you Mill see that you can not statements to 

only type the statement that you want to add to your file, but insert 

you can also bug the statement. When you bug the statement, it 

is copied as if you had used the Copy Statement command. To 

use the insert Statement command to copy a statement that you 

bug, type "is" for "Insert Statement", bug one of the 

characters in the statement you want the new statement to 

follow, indicate the relative level of the new statement, and 

then bug one of the characters in the statement you want to 

copy. The example below adds the new statement at the same 

level as the statement you indicate the new statement should 

follow. 

You type: Command window shows: 

i BASE insert c: 

s BASE Insert Statement (to follow) B/a: 

<BUG> BASE Insert Statement (to follow) L: 

<0K> BASE Insert Statement (to follow) B/T/CA3: 

<BOG> BASE Insert Statement (to follow) OK: 

<GK> BASE C: 

The Insert Branch command adds a branch to your file. You can Insert Branch 

type the branch if you use <INS> to enter insert mode after 

typing the first statement, just as when you use the insert 

Statement coamand. Cr you can bug a branch to be copied as in 

the Copy Branch command. To bug the branch, sinmiy'^tjg one of 

the characters in the top statement of the branch. 

The Insert Group command adds a group to your file. You can Insert Group 
type the group if you use <IHS> to enter insert mode after 
typing the first statement, Just as when you use the insert 
Statement cosmand. Or you can bug a group to be copied as in 
the Copy Group command. To bug the group, bug one of the 



Page 5-13 



Editing: 



HLS Textbooic 
An intermediate Lesson 



characters in the top statement of the first brancn in the 
group and then hug one of the characters in the top statement 
of the last branch in the group. 



REPEATING COMMANDS 

You may find that you often n 
over and over again- If you 
<0K> in a command, you will e 
the last command that you use 
you have to bug something or 
the final <GK>, the coalman d r 
continue to repeat until you 
if you want to read an entire 
over and over again, you can 
with <RC> instead of <0K>. V 
until you type <CD> to leave 



eed to repeat the 
type <RC> instead 
nter repeat aode. 
d is repeated up t 
type sotte text, an 
epeats again, the 
type <CD> to stop, 
file by using the 
give the Jump cork 
ou will then be in 
it. 



same command 
of the final 

In repeat mode, 
o the step where 
o after you give 

command will 
For example, 

Jump command 
and once and end 

repeat mode 



You type: 

3 
<BOG> 

<RC> 

<BUG> 

<QO 

<BUG> 

<0K> 

<CD> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

BASE Jump (to) V: 

BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

BASE Jump (to) ?: 

BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

BASE Jump (to) V: 

BASE Jump (to) B/C: 
BASE C: 



You also enter repeat mode if you type <RC> when MLS is ready 
for a coaroand. The last command you gave will be repeated 
until you type <CD>. For example, if Replace statement was the 
last command you gave, you could type <RC> after "BASE C: H , and 
HLS would repeat the Replace Statement coemand up to the first 
W B/A: M prompt, where you nave to indicate which statement you 
want to replace. 



You type: 

rs 

<BUG> 

statement 

<0K> 

<0K> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Replace Statement (at) B/A: 

BASE Replace Statement (at) (by) 8/T/CAl: 

BASE Replace Statement (at) (by) statement 

BASE C: 

BASE Replace Statement (at) B/A: 



RETURNING TC A FILE: THE JUMP FILE RETURN CQfclUlflD 

After moving from one file to another, such as from your 
initial file to a file you want to copy and then from that file 



Repeat mode 



File return 
ring 



Page 5-14 



Editing: An 



NLS Textbook 
Intermediate Lesson 



to one you want to edit, you can easily return to any of the 
files you displayed previously. ULS maintains a list of the 
last ten files you displayed; this list is called the "file 
return ring", the Juaip File Return command enables you to 
display again one of the files in your file return ring. Every 
time you jump to another file, it is added the list, Mhen ULS 
returns you to a previous file, it will display your last view 
of that file, Mith the same statement at the top of the file 
window and the same viewspecs in effect. 



When you use the Jump File Retur 
each file in your file return ri 
name and the file name. These M 
at a tiaie so you can type "y" fo 
return to that particular file) 
you do not want to return to tha 
consider the next file on the li 
the last file that you displayed 
"Jump File Return", follow with 
after the first "Y/K;" prompt. 



n coffittand, NLS 
ng by displayin 
flashbacks" are 
r "yes" (meanin 
or "n" 1 for "no" 
t particular fi 
st>. For ex air p 
, you would typ 
<0K>, and then 



reminds you of 
g the directory 

presented one 
g you want to 

(oeaning that 
le and want to 
le, to return to 
e "3fr w for 
answer "yes" 



You type: 

3 
f 

r 

<OK> 

<0K> 



Cotamand window shows: 

BASE Juap (to) fi/C: 
BASE Jump (to) File B/C: 
BASE *Iuap (to) File Return 
BASE Juap (to) File Return 
< DIRECTOR*, 
BASE c: 



ck: 



FILE.tfLSU, > V/I: 



When you return to a file in your file return ring, it becomes 
your current file and is added to the list. 

NOTE: Whenever you see a "Y/S:" prompt, you nay type <0K> as 
well as "y" for "yes". 



Page 5-15 



KLS Textbook 
Editing: In Intermediate Lesson 



EXERCISES 

Use the editing commands introduced in this lesson to correct 
the disorganized meal plan in the file naped Seals in the 
NLS-Documentation directory. 

1. Copy the first week of the meal plan to your own work 
file* 

2. Delete the two extra copies of the plan for Sunday. 

3. Use one c orb and to put the days of the week into proper 
order, 

4. Move the dinner plan to its proper place en Saturday. 

5. Change the breakfast and dinner weals on Thursday so the 
day will end with pizza, beer, and ice creai instead of 
starting with them. Use only one co«mand. 

6* Sunday has two dinners that are exactly the sane and no 
lunch. Change one of the dinners to a light »eal for lunch. 



Page 5-16 



HLS Textbook 
Editing: An Intermediate Lesson 



SUGARY 

When you use editing conaands to control logical sections of a 
structured file and level and line clipping viewspecs to 
display the overall picture* you have the power to revise or 
reorganize the file in any way that you want. It is Just as 
easy to delete, aove, replace, insert, copy, end transpose 
statements, groups/ branches as it is to control characters* 
words* and text, ¥ou can try Making changes Just to see If 
they make sense; if you aren't pleased, it is easy to try 
another change or even put things back the way they were. If 
you create logically structured files as you write, it will be 
ouch easier for you or a co-worker to revise, reorganize, or 
find appropriate material to copy. 

Revising a document with BiLS is a quick and easy task; you can 
update existing proposals, reports, letters, and so on, rather 
than start from scratch. Because it is so easy to revise 
existing documents* be sure to read carefully everything that 
you copy, CJsing the saaie poorly written document over and over 
again is not an effective use of MLS, 

To learn more about structure and how it can help you look at 
^your files as well as edit them, see the lessor "Viewing: An 
Intermediate Lesson**, 



Page 5-17 



ULS Textbook 
Editing: An Intermediate Lesson 



SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES 

1. Use the Create File cossand to create your own work file, 
the Juwp Link coaaiand to look at the file in the 
ULS-Documentation directory, and the Copy Branch command to 
copy the first week into your file, 

2. Use the Delete Group command to delete the last two Sundays. 

3. Use the Move Group command to move Thursday and Friday to 
follow Wednesday. 

4. Use the Move Branch cc»»and to aove Dinner to follow Lunch 
on Saturday. Bug Lunch as the statement you want Dinner to 
follow and keep it at the sane level as Lunch. 

5. Use the Transpose Group coawand to switch the food under 
Breakfast with the food under Dinner. 

6. Use the Replace Branch coamand to delete the first Dinner 
and type in a new heading for lunch. Then use the Insert 
Statenent command to add a new meal plan for the lunch. 



Page 5-18 



NLS Textbook 



¥lEiII«G: AN INTERMEDIATE LESSOR 



NLS Textbook 



flEfclNG: AM INTERMEDIATE LESSCS 



This lesson contains an intermediate-level description of how 
to read and search for information in NLS files. The 
techniques introduced here will enable you to read files 
quickly and flexibly. Skill in viewing files will increase the 
productivity of your work in ULS. 

To understano this lesson, you must be familiar with basic NLS 
editing and viewing, covered in the lessons "Beginning Use of 
MLS" and "Creating and Reading an Organized File", and with the 
structural terms "branch" and "group", discussed in the lesson 
"Editing: An Intermediate Lesson". 



Page 6-1 



MLS Textbook 
Viewing: An intermediate Lesson 



INTRODUCTION 

The hierarchical structure of HhS tiles provides you with 
several important advantages when you need to lock at online 
information. ¥ou can use level and line clipping viewspecs to 
view the information in many different ways, iihen you are 
reading a document in a file # you can easily skip from one 
section in the document to another according to their logical 
positions in the hierarchy, this lesson introduces some new 
structural entities and relationships that will enable you to 
take further advantage of hierarchical organization when 
reading files as well as when editing them. 

When you want to see a statement that is in the middle of a 
file* there are »any ways to reach it. ¥ou car use a command 
to get directly to a specific location. Or, if you do not know 
the exact location of a statement* you can give a command to 
find the statement that includes a particular phrase or you can 
use viewspecs to scan the file until you find the statement. 
Using these techniques to look at a file is often called 
"viewing" rather than "reading" because you can carefully 
select what you want to see; you do not have to wade through 
pages of unnecessary information as you do when you are reading 
( a book. 

To practice viewing as described in this lesser, use the Jump 
Link command to display the file named Output-processor in the 
JfLS-Documenfation directory, this file contains the online 
version of the Output Processor Users* Guide. 



You type: 


Conmand window shows: 


J 
1 

nls-documentation* 
output- 
processor* 

<0K> 


BASE Jump (to) B/C: 
BASE Jump (to) Link B/T/LAi: 
BASE Jump (to) Link nls-documentation, 
output-processor* 

BASE C: 



Page 6-2 



ULS Textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



VOCABULARY 

address: A location in an ®LS file, 

Down: A command word that refers to the first substateaent, if 
any# of the statement you indicate, 

end of branch: The last statement in a specified branch, 
regardless of level, 

head: The first statement in a plex. 

icient: A short series of characters that identifies an 
individual or a group to NLS. 

Jump Return command: An NLS command that enables you to return 
to one of the statements in the statement return ring for the 
file you are looking at. When NLS returns you to a previous 
statement, the statement will again appear at the top of the 
file window and the same viewspecs will be in effect as when 
you last viewed the statement. 

Jump Content First command: An NLS command that displays the 
first statement, starting from the beginning of your file, that 
contains the text you specify for content. 

Jump Content Next command: An NLS command that displays the 
next statement, following the statement at the top of your file 
window, that contains the text you specify for content* 

Jump Mord First command: An NLS command that displays the 
first statement, starting from the beginning cf your file, that 
contains the word(s) you specify for content. 

Jump Mord Next command: An NLS command that displays the next 
statement, following the statement at the top cf your file 
window, that contains the word(s) you specify for content* 

link: a series of characters that indicates a location in an 
NLS file. 

plex: All the branches that have the same upstatement as the 
branch that you indicate. 

SID: This stands for Statement Identifier, which is a unique 
number that NLS automatically assigns to every statement as it 
is added to a file. An SID is always a number that begins with 



Page 6-3 



NLS Textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



zero. Unlike a statement number* the SID of a particular 
statement does net change when the structure of the file 
changes* 

statement numbers A series of alternating numbers and letters 
that indicates the exact position of a statement within the 
hierarchical structure of a file. 

statement return rings A list of the last ten statements you 
jumped to in a particular file. 

statement signature: The ident of the person who last changed 
a statement and the date and time the change was made- ¥ou can 
use viewspec K to see statement signatures. 

tail: The last highest-level stateaent in a plex* 

Up: A coroioand word that refers to the upstateeent of the 
statement you indicate, that is/ the statement that is one 
level above it* 



Page 6-4 



8L5 Textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



SEATING VIEfcSPECS WITH THE «00SE 

As you become more experienced in working with information in 
HLS tiles, you Mill often «ant to change your view. You can 
change viewspecs in the Base subsystem by giving the Set 
Viewspecs command. However, when you are reading or editing a 
file and want to change viewspecs, you may not want to pause to 
give the Set Viewspecs command. You can instead use the mouse 
to change your viewspecs, without giving a command. You can 
even change your viewspecs with the mouse while you are in the 
middle of specifying a command. 

For lowercase viewspecs, simply press the left and middle mouse Which buttons 
buttons and hold them down as you type the appropriate to press 

lowercase characters on the keyboard or keyset. Do not release 
the mouse buttons until you have finished typing the viewspecs. 
For uppercase viewspecs, press all three souse buttons as you 
type the viewspec characters; you can type the» in lowercase 
because pressing all three mouse buttons, like pressing a SHIFT 
key, tells NLS to take them as uppercase. 

When you give the Set Viewspecs command, ULS automatically Viewspecs f 
displays your file with the new viewspecs in effect. However, and F 
when you use the mouse to change viewspecs, you must set either 
viewspec f or viewspec F along with your other viewspecs to 
sake the view change. 

Viewspec: Means: 

f Put viewspecs into effect 

F Recreate the display 

For example, to see your file with blank lines between the 
statements, hold down the left and middle mouse buttons while 
typing "yf". You sill see "BASE "y" in your command window. 
If you do not set viewspec f or F, the view will change only 
when you use an editing command that changes it or when you 
Jump to another statement. 

NOTE: Using the mouse to change viewspecs works in almost all 
ULS subsystems, while the Set Viewspecs command is available 
only in Base. 

VIEWIUG ST^TEHfiHf MJMBERS AND SIBS 

NLS mantains both a statement number and an SIC for every 
statement. You can use viewspecs to display your file with 
statement numbers or SlOs. The statement number indicates the 
exact position of the statement in the hierarchical structure 

Page 6-5 



Viewing: 



NLS Textbook 
An intermediate Lesson 



of the tile. A stat 
numbers and letters 
statement of a file 
statement you add to 
its first substateme 
so on. The SID (iibi 
unique number that N 
as it is added to th 
begins with zero; th 
first statement that 
the second will have 
level* 



ement number 
that begins 
has the stat 
the file yi 
nt will have 
ch stands fo 
LS automatic 
e file. An 
e origin sta 
you add to 
the SID 03, 



is a series o 
with a number; 
ement number 
11 have the st 

the statement 
r Statement 10 
ally assigns t 
SID is always 
temenf has the 
the file will 

and so on, re 



f alternating 

the origin 
, the first 
atement number 1, 

number la, and 
entifier) is a 
c each statement 
a number that 

SID 01, the 
have the SID 02, 
gardless of their 



When you move a statement to another position in the file, the 
statement number changes to reflect the new position; however, 
the SID does not change. Once an SID is assigned to a 
statement, it remains with that statement even if you move the 
statement or change the text. Hote that neither statement 
numbers nor SIDs are part of the actual statement, so they 
cannot be deleted or moved. 

The combination of viewspec m and viewspec I displays the SIDs 
in your file- Viewspec m means "statement numbers/SIDs on" and 
viewspec I means "show SIDs, not statement numbers". If you 
set viewspec m without specifically setting viewspec I at some 
point during your work session, ULS will assume that you want 
to see statement numbers rather than SIDs. 



SIDs do not 
change* 



Viewspec I 



you type: 


Comma 


ind wj 


Lndow shows: 


<SP>se 


BASE 


Set 


c: 


v 


BASE 


Set 


Viewspecs V: 


ml 


BASE 


Set 


Viewspecs "ml" 


<0K> 


BASE 


C: 





To use the mouse to display SIDs, press the left and middle 
mouse buttons and hold them down while typing "m", and then 
press all three arouse buttons and hold them down while typing 
"if". Vou will see BASE "ml" in your command window. Remember 
that when you press all three mouse buttons, the characters you 
type are taken as uppercase viewspecs, even if you type them in 
lowercase. 

After setting viewspecs m and I* you can see statement numbers 
rather than SIDs by using viewspec J to "show statement 
numbers, not SIDs". To turn off either statement numbers or 
SIDs, use viewspec n for "statement numbers/SIDs off". 



Viewspec 



Viewspecs G and 8 control the position of the statement numbers Viewspecs G 



Page 6-6 



NLS textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



and SIDs when they are displayed. Viewspec € places "statement and E 

numbers/SIDs right" and viewspec fl places "statement 

numbers/SIDs left", There are various advantages to having the 

statement numbers or SIDs on the right or on the left; you will 

have to find out which works best for you in different 

situations. If you do not specifically set viewspec G sometime 

during your work session* viewspec H will automatically be in 

effect. For example* to use the mouse to display statement 

numbers on the right, press the left and aiddle mouse buttons 

and hold them down while typing "m"* and then press all three 

mouse buttons and hold the» down while typing **gf". 

In summary* three pairs of viewspecs control statement numbers 
and SIDs: m/n, I/J, and G/H. 

Viewspec: Means: 

m Statement numbers/SIDs on 

n Statement numbers/SIDs off 

I Show SIDs, not stateaent numbers 

J Show statement numbers* not SIDs 

G Statement numbers/SIDs right 

H Statement numbers/SIDs left 

It is important to understand how each pair of viewspecs 
interacts with the others. Vou cannot show either statement 
numbers or SIOs unless viewspec m is set. For example* if you 
set viewspec I or G while viewspec n is in effect* HLS will not 
display the SIDs. Similarly* when you set viewspec m* the 
status of I/J and G/H determines the type of numbers that will 
appear and whether they will appear on the left or the right. 

Level and line clipping viewspecs do not conflict in any way 
with the viewspecs that control statement numbers and SIDs. 
wjien you use any combination of level and line clipping 
viewspecs with statement numbers or SIDs* you will see the 
statement numbers or SIDs for all the statements that are 
displayed* but you will not see any for the statements that are 
not displayed. 

ADDRESSING «ITH STATEMENT BOMBERS AND SIDS 

In NLS commands, you can use statement numbers or SIDs to 
indicate which statements you want to find or change. For 
example* when you to want to display a statement at the top of 
your file window* you need to give the location of the 
statement. A cosnon method of giving the location of a 



Page 6-7 



NLS Textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



stateaent is to bug it, but you cannot bug a statement that is 
not displayed on your screen. You can, however, use either the 
stateaent number or the SID to locate a particular statement. 

A location in an ®LS tile is called an "address", and the 
series of characters that you type to indicate an address is 
called a "link". Just as you use the Jump Link command to move 
from one file to another, you can use it to icve from one 
stateaent to another within a file, by typing a statement 
number or an SID after the "B/T/LAi:" prompt. For example, you 
can display the third first-level statement at the top of your 
file window as follows: 



Addresses and 
links 



You type 

J 
1 
3 
<0K> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Jump <to) B/C: 

BASE Jump (to) Link B/T/CA3 

BASE Jump (to) Link 3 
BASE c: 



If you set viewspecs to see siDs when looking at the 
Output-processor file, you will notice that stateaent 3 has the 
SID 027. To display this statement at any tine, even after 
editing may have changed the position of soae statements, you 
can use the SID in the Jump Link command. 



You type: 

J 
1 

027 
<OK> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

BASE Jump (to) Link B/T/CA3 

BASE Jump (to) Link 027 
BASE C: 



Note that 
you can b 
a link. 
directory 
the forat 
to interp 
comma raus 
number or 
in format! 



the "B" an 
ug a link o 
The informa 

name, a fi 
of the info 
ret it. Fo 
t always fo 

SID does n 
on on links 



d "T" in the "B/T/CA3:" prompt mean that 
r, as shown in the preceding examples, type 
tion that you can put in a link includes a 
le name, and a statement number or SID. 
rmation you type in the link tells UhS how 
r example, you have already learned that a 
How a file name in a link. A statement 
ot need any special punctuation. More 
will appear in a forthcoming lesson. 



Whether you use statement numbers or SIDs in ycur links depends 
a great deal on what you are doing. For instance, if you are 
writing a document that has four first-level branches and you 
want to see the paragraph immediately below the fourth heading, 
you can simply jump to statement 4a. In this case, you can 
figure out the statement number without looking at It. But if 



typing and 

punctuating 

links 



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MLS textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



you move or delete several statements, the statement numbers 
change and it is hard to keep track of the®. It is then 
extremely useful to work with a paper copy of the file printed 
with SIDs so you always kno» a specific way tc address each 
statement* 

STRUCTURAL 8 EL ATIQiSUIPS : UP, DGi!i, AKB EUQ 

The more you work with structured files, the acre often you 
want to see a statement because it is up or down from another. 
For exaraple, after you have displayed a statevent with a 
certain SID, you may want to look up at its heading. MLS 
provides three command words for such purposes: Up, Down, and 
End. Like Next, Back, Successor, and Predecessor, these words 
follow the verb "Jump". 

"Up"* is tne upstateiaent of the statement that you indicate and Up and Down 

"Down" is the tirst substatement of the statement that you 

indicate. E\iery statement in a file has an Up, except for the 

origin statement, but not every statement has a Down. For 

example, to see the Op of one of the statements in your file 

window, you can use the Jump Up command and bug the statement. 

You type; Command window shows: 

j BASE Jump (to) fi/C: 

u BASE Ju»p <to) Up fi/A: 

<BUG> BASE Jump (to) ¥: 

<OK> BASE C: 

Similarly, tc see the Down of one of the statements in your 
file window, you can use the Jump Down command and bug the 
statement. If the statement does not have a Down, the 
statement that you bug will move to the top of the file window. 

You type: Command window shows: 

j BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

d BASE Jump (to) Down B/A: 

<BUG> BASE Jump (to) V: 

<QK> BASE C: 

The "8/ a:" prompt means that you can bug a statement or give an 
address, such as a statement number or an SIB. For example, to 
see the upstatement of the first statement in your file, you 
can use the Jump Up command and type "1" for the address; this 
will put the origin statement at the top of the file window. 



Page 6-9 



HL5 textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



You type: Consand window shows: 

j BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

u BASE Juap (to) Up B/A: 

1 BASE Juirp (to) Op A: 1 

<0K> BASE Jump (to) Op v: 

<0K> BASE C: 

You can also use the command word "End" after "Jump". The Jump End of branch 

End command displays the "end" of a branch, that is, the last 

statement in the branch that you indicate, regardless of level. 

This command is extremely useful for checking the last 

statement in a particular section of a file. For example, to 

display the very last statement in your file, you can simply 

Jump to the end of branch 0. 



You type: 


Command window 


shows: 






3 
e 



<QK> 

<OK> 


BASE Jump (to) 
BASE Jump (to) 
BASE Jump (to) 
BASE Jump (to) 
BASE c: 


8/C: 
End (of 
End (of 
End (of 


branch) 
branch) 
branch) 


fi/A: 

a: o 
v: 



MORE QU STRUCTURE: PLEX, HEAD, AMD TAIL 

Another structural concept that will help you to view as well What a plex is 

as to edit your files is "plex". The word "plex" is a special 

HLS term derived from the word "plexus", which the dictionary 

defines as "an interwoven combination of parts in a structure". 

Although this sounds rather vague, "plex" has a very specific 

meaning in NLS: A plex is ALL of the branches that have the 

saffle upstateient or, in other words, all of the substructure 

below a particular statement. Like Statement, Branch, and 

Group/ Plex is a command noun for editing; you can use it after 

editing command verbs such as Delete and Move. 

To point to a plex, you can bug any of the highest-level 
statements in the plex or type one of their statement numbers 
or SlDs. For example, in the Output-processor tile, all of the 
branches that have the upstatement 3 constitute a plex. You 
can refer to this plex as the plex at 3a, the plex at 3b/ the 
plex at 3c, and so on, or you can bug any of the statements or 
give its SIB. Mote that the plex may begin with a statement 
before the one that you point to. For example, if you point to 
the plex at 3c, the first statement in the plex is 3a. 

Since all the first-level branches in a file have the same 
upstatement (the origin statement), all of the statements in 

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NLS Textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



the file except the origin statement constitute a plex. This 
plex is the plex at statement 1/ which is exactly the same as 
the plex at statement 2, statement 3, statement 4, and so on. 

Every plex has a head and a tail. The head is the first Head and tail 

statement in the plex and the tail is the last highest-level of plex 

statement in the plex. If a plex consists of only one branch, 

the head and tail are the sa»e stateaent. ¥ou can use the 

command words Head and Tail with the verb "Jump". For example, 

to see the first item in a long list, you can use the Jump Head 

command or, to see the heading of the last chapter in a report, 

you can use the Jump Tail command. Specify the plex that you 

want to see the head or tail of by typing the address of any 

on« of the highest-level statements in the plex or by bugging 

it. 

You type: Command window shows: 

J BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

h BASE Ju»p (to) Head B/A: 

<BUG> BASE Jump (to) Head v: 

<0K> BASE c: 

The following example shows how you can display the last 
first-level statement in the file you are looking at. 

You type: Command window shows: 

j BASE Ju«p (to) B/C: 

t BASE Jump (to) Tail B/A: 

1 BASE Jump (to) Tail A: 1 

<QK> BASE Juip (to) Tail V: 

<QK> BASE C: 

Note that "plex" and ,, group M are closely related concepts. A Plex versus 
plex consists of all the branches that have the same group 

upstatement, while a group is any series of branches that have 
the same upstatement. For example, if the branches beginning 
at statements 3a through 3c constitute a plex, then the 
branches beginning at the following statements are groups: 3a 
through 3b/ 3b through 3c; and 3a through 3c, that is, the 
entire plex. 

VIEWING STATEMENT SIGNATURES 

A statement signature, like a statement number or an SIDy is 
information about an individual statement that you can display 
at any time by setting the appropriate viewspec. The statement 
signature shows the ident of the person who last changed the 

Page 6-11 



NLS Textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



statement and the date and time the change was made. 
Displaying statement signatures is especially useful when more 
than one person has worked on the same file* It allows you to 
see which statements Mere added or changed by a co-worker* 

Viewspecs K and L control statement signatures. 

Viewspec: $eans: 

K Statement signatures on Viewspecs K 

L Statement signatures off and L 

The statement signatures will appear on the right side of the 
file window* Statement signatures do not conflict with 
statement numbers or SIDs. You can display a file with both at 
the same time; the signatures will appear one line below 
statement numbers or SIDs being displayed on the right* 

UOTE: »LS identifies users by idents* If a user has a 
directory in his or her own name* the statement signature for 
that user will show the ident associated with that directory* 
If a user is one of several who share a directory, the 
statement signature will contain the ident that the user 
specified upon entering NLS* If a co-worker is using your 
directory or has specified your ident upon entering MLS, there 
is no way NLS can tell that it is not actually you; in this 
case, the statement signatures on the statements changed by 
your co-worker will show your ident* 

CONTENT SEARCHING 

Quite frequently when you want to display a statement, you do 
not know its statement number or SID but you co have some idea 
of what appears in the statement* The content searching 
commands in KLS look for a statement that contains the text or 
word that you specify. For example, if you want to see the 
paragraphs in the Output Processor Users* Guide that contain 
information on headers, you can use content searching commands 
to display the statements that contain "header". Four content 
searching commands are: dump Content First, Jump Content next. 
Jump Word First, and Jump iord Uext* 

Jump Content First looks for the first statement in your file Jump Content 
that contains the text you specify for content. You can First 
specify the text by typing it or bugging it. For example, this 
is how you could find the first statement that has the text 
"header" in it; 



Page 6-12 



Vou type: 

c 
f 

header 

<0K> 

<0K> 



ULS Textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



Command window shows: 

BASE Jump (to) B/C: 

BASE Jump (to) Content C: 

BASE Juirp (to) Content First KPT/B/T/CA3 

BASE Jump (to) Content First "header" 

BASE Jump (to) Content First "header" V: 

BASE C: 



The text you speclly may include any characters except quote 
marks (")• SiLS Mill search for the text exactly as you 
indicate it* and it will distinguish uppercase Iron lowercase 
characters. Thus, the command shown in the preceding example 
will not find a statement that contains only "Keader" and not 
"header"; to find such a statement, you would have to specify 
"Header" for content* 



Jump Content Mext wi 
the statement at the 
text you specify for 
searching command du 
choice of searching 
After you type the c 
last command appears 
prompt "RPT/B/T/CA3: 
after this prompt* 
Occurrence of "heade 
command as follows: 



11 display the n 
top of the file 
content. Once 
ring an nLS work 
for the same con 
omoand words, th 

in the command 
". To repeat th 
for example, if 
r«, you could us 



ext statement, following 

window, that contains the 
you have used any content 

session* you have the 
tent you used last time, 
e content you used for the 
window, followed by the 
e search, simply type <RC> 
you wanted to see the next 
e the Jump Content Next 



you type: 

3 
c 

n 

RPT/B/T/CA3: 

<RC> 

<0K> 



Command window shows: 



BASE Jump (to) 
BASE Jump (to) 
BASE Jump (to) 



B/C: 

Content C: 

Content liext "header" 



BASE Jump (to) Content Next 
BASE c: 



¥: 



If you want to search for any other content, simply type or bug 
the text as usual after the "RPT/B/T/CAi:" prompt. 

«nen you are using Jump Content First and no statement contains 
the text you have specified, or when you are using Jump Content 
Hext and no statement in the rest of the file contains it# NLS 
will display a message in the status window. ¥ou will see the 
text in quotes followed by a question mark. For example, if 
you were searching for "header" and typed "heder" by mistake, 
you would see the message "heder"=M ?? in the status window. 



Juap Content 
Next 



Page 6-13 



Viewing: An 



MLS textbook 
Intermediate Lesson 



Jump Mord First and Jump lord Hext ar 
First and Jump Content Hext except th 
series of words rather than text. Fo 
Jump Word command and type "header"/ 
word "header"/ that is/ "header" surr 
are not letters or numbers; but if yo 
type "header"/ ULS will search for th 
is within another word, such as in "h 



e 


the same 


ey search 


r 


example/ 


NI 


„S Kill s 


eunded by 


u 


use Jump 


e 


text "he 


eaders" or 



as Jump Content 
tor a word or a 

if you use a 
earch for the 
characters that 

Content and 
ader" even if it 

"doubleheader". 



When using the Jump Mord First or Jump Sord Next command/ you 
can type or bug the word or, if you have already given a 
content searching command curing the work session* you can use 
<RC>. For example/ to find the next statement that contains a 
word displayed on your screen, you can use the Jump lord Next 
command and bug the yord. If you specified "header" in the 
last content searching command you gave, this is what will 
happen: 



Jump iord 
versus Jump 
Content 



You type: 


Command «j 


Lndow 


sho«< 


- • 


J 


BASE Jump 


(to) 


b/c: 




w 


BASE Jump 


(to) 


lord 


c: 


n 


BASE Jump 


(to) 


fcord 


$ext "heacer" 


<B0€> 
<OK> 


6 AS I Jump 
BASE c: 


(to) 


iord 


«ext ¥: 



RPT/8/T/CA3: 



RETURNING TO A STATEMENT: THE JUMP RETDRN C0K!«AND 



After you have jumped fr 
may want to go back to w 
this/ ULS maintains a.li 
last ten statements you 
"statement return ring", 
to return to one of the 
ring, yhen you return t 
will again appear at the 
viewspecs will be in eff 
statement. 



oas one point 
here you jump 
st/ for each 
jumped to> th 
The Jump Re 
statements in 
o a previous 

top of the f 
ect as when y 



in a file to another/ you 
ed from. To help you do 
file you display/ of the 
is list is called the 
turn command enables you 

the statement return 
statement, the statement 
lie windoii and the same 
ou last viewed the 



Statement 
return ring 



When you give the Jump Return command, HLS reminds you of each 
statement in your statement return ring by displaying the first 
few characters of the statement* NLS displays these 
"flashbacks" one at a time so you can type "y" for "yes" 
(meaning you want to return to that statement) or "n" for "no" 
(meaning you do not want to return to that statement and want 
to consider the next statement in the list). For example/ to 
see the next to the last statement/ you can give the Jump 
Return command and answer "no" for the last statement and "yes" 
for the next to the last statement. 



Page 6-14 



Viewing: 



KLS Textbook 
An intermediate Lesson 



You type: 

3 
r 

<0K> 

n 



y 

<0K> 



Command window shows: 

BASE Ju»p (to) B/C: 
BASE Juap (to) Return GK 
BASE Jump (to) Return 
Statement begin Y/Uz 
BASE Jusp (to) Return 
Statement begin 
Further on back ¥/H: 
BASE Juiap (to) Return 
Statement begin no 
Further on back OK: 
BASE c: 



When you return to a statement in your statement return ring, 
it becomes your current statement and is added to the list. 

NOTE: Whenever you see a n l/u: n prorapt, you a?ay type <0K> as 
well as M y M tor "yes". 



Page 6-15 



NLS textbook 
Viewing: An Intersiediate Lesson 



EXERCISE 

Find the paragraphs in the Output Processor Users* Guide that 
include the word "switch". After you find each paragraph, Jump 
to the heading for that section of the document, then return 
the paragraph you found to the top of your tile window before 
looking for the next paragraph. 



Page 6-16 



UhS Textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



SUMMARY 

By taking advantage of ULS viewing capabilities, you can freely 
move through a document of any length without reading or even 
scanning unnecessary paragraphs. When you understand the 
relationships between statements in a hierarchical file, you 
can easily jump from one logical section of the document to 
another. You can use statement numbers and SIBs to display 
immediately any particular statement. Content searching 
commands enable you to find statements that contain specific 
information* Besides the level and line clipping functions, 
viewspecs control helpful information about individual 
statements, such as SIDs and statement signatures. 

Vieying HhS files is a important aspect of working in JiLS. The 
ability to see the information in your file in a variety of 
ways is valuable no matter what subsystem you are using. The 
Jump comiands and the ability to change viewspecs are 
universale you will use them for almost every kind of online 
work. 



Page 6-17 



®LS Textbook 
Viewing: An Intermediate Lesson 



SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 

If you are not already looking at the Output Processor Users' 
Guide, use the Jump Link command to display the file naaed 
Qutput-procesor in the $LS-Docujnentation directory, hy typing 
"nls-docufflentatio^output-processor," atter the "B/T/CA3J" 
prompt. Give the Jump icrd First coaneand and type "switch" as 
the word. After you find the first paragraph, give the Jump Up 
command and bug the paragraph to see the heading for that 
section of the document. Then use the Jump fieturn command to 
return the paragraph you found to the top of your file window. 
To find the next statement that includes the word "switch", use 
the Jump liord Hext coffimand and type <RC> after the 
"RPT/B/T/CA3:" prompt. Then give the Junp Up and Jump Return 
commands as cefore, followed by another Jump word Next command, 
and so on* 



Page 6-18 



HLS Textbook 



NLS VOCABULARY 



$LS Textbook 



KLS VOCABOLAR* 



Action: A service provided by the systems staff that enables 
users to request assistance and register complaints, 
suggestions* or compliments* 

address: A location in an ULS file* 

Back: A command word that refers to the statement immediately 
before the statement you indicate, regardless cf level* 

Base subsystem: A basic set of commands for reading, writing, 
editing, printing, and controlling files* 

<BC>: This stancs for Backspace Character. Pressing either 
the appropriate key on the keyboard or the left mouse button 
deletes the last character you typed. You can also use <BC> to 
delete a <B13€> or any step in a command. 

branch: A statement and all of its substructure (if it has 
'any)* A branch lay be a single statement that has no 
statements below it or an origin statement that includes the 
entire tile. 

Branch command: A Sendmaii subsystem command in which you 
specify a branch that you want to send. 

bug: To bug means to indicate a character on the screen by 
using the mouse to point at it and then typing <QK>. 

<BUG>: This notation means that you are to bus a character on 
the screen. 

bugmark: The mark displayed on the screen when you bug a 
character. The bugmark will be a highlighted character. 

<8W>: This stands for Backspace Word. Pressing either the 
appropriate key on the keyboard or the left and middle mouse 
buttons deletes the last word you typed (plus any spaces, 
punctuation marks, or other characters following the word). 

<CD>: This stands for Command Delete, pressing either the 
appropriate key on the keyboard or the middle mouse button 
cancels any command you have not finished (that is, before you 
have given the final <0K>). You may then begin a new command* 



Page 7-1 



ULS Textbook 
HLS Vocabulary 



character: A single letter/ number/ punctuation mark/ space, 
return character/ or special control character. You type 
characters when giving commands and you store characters in 
files* 

command: An instruction you give to the computer to perform an 
action. When you give MLS a command/ hLS will perioral the 
action after you complete the command with a final <GK>. 

command word: A word that ULS knows is part of a command/ 
usually a verb or a noun. 

command syntax: The general form of a command- 

Comment command: A Sendmail subsystem command that lets you 
enter a comment to appear along with the citation for a Journal 
item. 

Copy command: A Base subsystem command that reproduces 
information in a file, such as a character/ a word/ some text/ 
a statement/ a branch, or a group. 

Create File command: A Base subsystem command that makes a new 
file in your directory,; the file will have the name you 
specify. 

Delete command: A Base subsystem command you can use to remove 
information/ such as a character/ a uord # or some text. 

Down: A command word that refers to the first substatement, if 
any, of the statement you indicate. 

end of branch: The last statement in a specified branch/ 
regardless of level. 

file: An online work space/ the computer's equivalent of a 
file folder in a filing cabinet/ that you can fill with 
information that you type in or copy from another file. In 
NLS/ you will always work uith material in a file/ whether you 
are reading/ writing/ or editing. 

file return ring: A list of the last ten files that you 
displayed. 

Goto command: The ULS command you use to enter another ULS 
subsystem. 

group: A series of branches that have the same upstatement. 



Page 7-2 



NLS Textbook 
NLS Vocabulary 



Group command: A Sendmail subsystem coaiand in which you 
specify a group that you want to send. 

head; The first statement in a plex. 

Help command: An NLS coiuiand to get information about 
commands, terms, and procedures. 

hierarchical structure; The structure of NLS files; an outline 
form that shows the relationship between the statements. 

ident: A short series of characters that identifies an 
individual or a group to NLS. 

initial file: The file, named with your ident, that 
automatically appears when you first enter NLS. 

<INS>: This stands for insert, pressing the appropriate key 
on the keyboard puts you in insert a?ode. 

Insert command: A Base subsystem command that lets you add new 
information to a file, such as a character, a word, some text, 
or a statement* 

insert mode: You enter this mode when you type <INS> in place 
of the final <0K> at the end of the Insert Statement coamand. 
In insert mode, you can continually add statements until you 
type <CD>. 

Jufflp command: An MLS comnand to move froa one point in a file 
to another, cr from one file to another. 

Jump Content First coamand: An HLS coamand that displays the 
first statement, starting from the beginning of your file, that 
contains the text you specify for content. 

Jump Content Next command: An HLS command that displays the 
next statement, following the statement at the top of your file 
window, that contains the text you specify for content. 

Jump File Return command; An NLS command that enables you to 

display one of the files that are in your file return ring. 

When MLS returns you to the file, the statement that you 

displayed last will be at the top of the file window and the 
same viewspecs will be in effect. 

Jump Return command: An MLS command that enables you to return 
to one of the statements in the statement return ring for the 
file you are looking at. ihen NLS returns you to a previous 

Page 7-3 



NLS Textbook 
MLS Vocabulary 



statements the statement yill again appear at the top of the 
file window and the same viewspecs Mill be in effect as when 
yon last viewed the statement. 

Jump Word First command: An ULS command that displays the 
first statement, starting frost the beginning of your file, that 
contains the worc(s) you specify for content. 

Jump Word Next command: An NLS command that displays the next 
statement, following the statement at the top of your file 
window, that contains the «ord(s) you specify for content. 

level: A number that indicates how far up or down a stateaent 
is in the hierarchical structure of a file. 

level clipping: Using viewspecs to display a Halted number of 
levels in a file. 

line clipping: Using viewspecs to display a limited number of 
lines for each statement* 

link: A series cf characters that indicates a location in an 
MIS file. 

menu item: A sufctopic, to guide you to related information, 
listed under a Help description. 

Move command: A Base subsystem command to reorder information 
in a file; for example, you can move one character to follow 
another. 

Next: A command word that refers to the statement immediately 
following the statement you indicate, regardless of level. 

noise word: When you type a command word, NLS may respond with 
a word or phrase in parentheses, called "noise words", to help 
you understand the purpose of the command or what you need to 
do to complete it. 

<NULL>: This notation represents a special character that 
means "nothing" or "none**. 

<0K>: This notation means that you are to press either the 
appropriate key on the keyboard or the right mouse button, to 
tell NLS that you have finished giving a command or part of a 
command. 

origin statement: The first statement in every file, ihen you 
create a file, NLS automatically makes an origin statement 

page 7-4 



NLS textbook 
ULS Vocabulary 



containing the name of the file and other pertinent 
information* The origin statement is at level 0, that is, one 
level above the first-level statements; it is the only 
statement that can be at this level* 

Plex: Ail the branches that have the same upstatement as the 
branch that you indicate. 

Plex command: A Sendmail subsystem command in which you 
specify a plex that you want to send. 

predecessor: The predecessor of a statement is the preceding 
statement that is at the same level and has the saae 
upstatement,. Mot every statement has a predecessor. 

prompt: A series of characters that appears in the command 
window to tell you what you can do next. Prompts are always 
one or more uppercase letters followed by a colon (:). 

question nark: ihen typed after any prompt, question mark (?) 
will show you what you can do next* 

Quit command: The MLS command you use to leave the Sendaaii 
'subsystem and return to the subsystem you were last working in. 

<RC>: This stands for Repeat Command. Pressing either the 
appropriate key on the keyboard or the middle and right aouse 
buttons puts you in repeat mode. 

repeat mode: You enter this mode when you type <RC> in place 
of the final <0K> in a command. The command is repeated up to 
the step where you have to bug something or type some text. 
After you give the final <QO for the repeated command, it will 
automatically repeat again/ and so on, until you type <CB>. 
You also enter this mode if you type <RC> when tilS is ready for 
a command, in which case the last command you gave is repeated 
until you type <CD>* 

Replace command: A Base subsystem command to remove 
information, such as a character, a word, or some text, and put 
new information in its place. 

SID: This stands for Statement Identifier, which Is a unigue 
number that KLS automatically assigns to every statement as it 
is added to a file. An SIB is always a number that begins with 
zero. Unlike a statement number, the SID of a particular 
statement does not change when the structure of the file 
changes. 



Page 7-5 



MLS textbook 
NLS Vocabulary 



<SP>: This stands for a space, that is, what you type with the 
space bar on the keyboard. In NLS, a space is an actual 
character that separates one word froa another and that can be 
inserted, deleted, moved, or copied; it is not emptiness. 

statement: Ihe basic unit of information in as HLS tile. A 
statement may be a single character, a word, a title, a 
heading, some text, or a paragraph. Every character in an NLS 
file is in a statement. 

statement number: 4 series of alternating numbers and letters 
that indicates the exact position of a statement within the 
hierarchical structure of a file. 

statement return ring: A list of the last ten statements you 
jumped to in a particular file. 

statement signature: The ident of the person who last changed 
a statement and the date and tine the change was jaade. You can 
use viewspec K to see statement signatures. 

structure: Ihe arrangement of statements in a file. NLS files 
have a hierarchical structure. 

subs ta teas ent: A substatement of a statement is any statement 
that is one level below it. Not every stateaent has a 
substateaent. 

substructures All of the statements one or acre levels below a 
particular statement. Not every statement has substructure. 

subsystem: NLS is divided into subsystems, which are sets of 
commands related to particular activities. 

successor: The successor of a statement is the next stateaent 
that is at the saae level and has the same upstateaent. Hot 
every stateaent has a successor. 

tail: The last highest-level statement in a plex. 

text: A series of adjacent characters, which nay include 
punctuation and spaces, within a stateaent. A single character 
Bay also be considered "text". 

Transpose conaand: A Base subsystem coaaand that enables you 
to make information such as characters, words, text, 
statements, branches, or groups exchange places. 



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NLS Textbook 
MLS Vocabulary 



Op: A command word that refers to the upstatement of the 
statement you indicate/ that is, the statement that is one 
level above it* 

Update File coaaand: A Base subsystem command to consolidate 
recent changes into your tile. You may erase changes made 
between updates with a command discussed in a forthcoming 
lesson. 

upstatement: The upstatement of a statement is the statement 
that is one level above it. Every statement except the origin 
statement has an upstatemeiit* 

viewspecs; Single-letter specifications of how you see your 
file. For example, with one viewspec you Hill see blank lines 
between statements, and with another you will see the 
statements without blank lines between them. 

visible character: A character you can see on your screen, 
such as a letter, number, or punctuation »ark. 

windows: The screen on the display terminal is divided into 
four areas, called "windows". 

command window: When you use a command, the command is 
displayed in this window along with prompts and noise words. 
You also see the name of the subsystem you are working in. 

file window: this window displays files or parts of files* 

status window: This window displays messages to you from ULS 
or the Executive* 

viewspec window: This small window displays characters that 
tell you what kind of view you have of the file being 
displayed. 

word: a series of letters and/or numbers that are surrounded 
by spaces, punctuation marks, or any other characters that are 
not letters or numbers. ULS does not consider the surrounding 
characters as part of the word. 



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